Introduction of Chain Surveying
Chain surveying is a branch of surveying where only accurate measurements are made in the field. This is especially true for small, detailed areas with a flat surface. It gets its name from the fact that the most widely used basic tool is the chain.
What Is Chain Surveying?
- Chain surveying is one way to test the ground. It is a type of test where only accurate measurements are made, no angular measurements are taken.
- It is a simple and accurate way to explore the world, in this case, the long distances measured in the file. This is an easy way to test.
Principle of Chain Surveying:
- The Principle of chain surveying is to divide the whole area into right triangles. Great care should be taken in creating the triangles so that the chain check process is smooth. As far as possible, the triangles formed should resemble the shape of an equal triangle. The built-in triangle should be a well-ventilated triangle. Almost triangles are known as ell triangles.
Types of Chain Surveying:
There are various types of chains used in different chain surveys those are.
- Chain surveying was done using a Metric chain.
- Chain surveying was done using Gunter’s chain.
- Chain surveying was done using Surveyor chain.
- Chain surveying was done using Engineer’s chain.
- Chain surveying was done using a Revenue chain.
Instruments Used in Chain Surveying:
Many different types of surveying instruments are used in chain surveying those are.
- Ranging Rods.
- Offsets Rods.
- Plumb Bob.
Procedure of Chain Surveying:
There are many procedures that are taken during chain surveying those are.
- Firstly preliminary survey is done on the field.
- A preliminary survey is always useful and often absolutely necessary for the survey to conduct a preliminary survey of the area before commencing its detailed research, with the aim of preparing the research stations and building a standard network of cable lines. Preliminary site explorations are commonly known as Reconnaissance or reconnoiter.
- Once on the ground, the explorer has to go all over the place to inspect the ground to determine how the series lines are arranged.
- During the test, the inspector must ensure that the research channels are visually appealing, there is no difficulty in changing the chains and the triangular angles are not difficult.
- Next stations are marked in the field after survey.
- Once successful reconnaissance has been completed, research channels should be marked in such a way that they can easily find out during the survey even if it is too late, if necessary, to review the incorrect work.
- On soft soils, wooden anchors are driven in, leaving a small portion shown above the ground.
- In the case of roads or solid surfaces, nails or nails can be sprayed with water.
- After marking the station a reference sketch is drawn of the field.
- A brief description of each survey channel also provides reference diagrams drawn in the field manual.
- A diagram, showing at least three dimensions in permanent and clear points such as gates, pillars, light posts, building corners, etc. Know it as a reference or drawing place.
- After a reference sketch is drawn, running survey lines are laid in the field.
- Therefore in completing the initial work, the survey lines are obtained as described below
- The line is formed between the last channels of the blank line.
- The chain was stretched with a true adjustment keeping one side of the chain in the first station.
- As the arrow is fixed to the other side of the chain and the chain is kept placed on the ground.
- The aloe veneer goes through a series of chains and removes objects from nearby objects on the right and left sides as it happens.
- Chain ages in the chain line and offsets are recorded in the field book.
- So the process of adding chains and removing them is repeated until the end of the foundation.
- Other lines are also similarly completed.
- After running survey lines are laid in the field finally building positions are located with reference to survey lineas.
- Name or number of chain lines.
- The name or number of the survey channel.
- A sign that describe a channel sign.
- A form of checking form or termination of a channel.
Error in Chain Surveying:
- There are various sources of error in chain surveying. Errors can be collected or compensated. Errors in accumulating those tens more as the measure progresses. Mistakes to compensate are those who like to be beautiful sometimes and beautiful sometimes. Subsequent errors in chain binding should be avoided.
- Error in chain surveying due to incorrect length of chain.
- The actual length of the chain used for the measurement may differ from the set length. The chain may be shorter or longer than the specified length.
- Therefore, the length of the chain should be checked before the start of the study and adjusted before arrest.
- Error in chain surveying due to loose chain.
- If the chain does not pull properly while the chain is inserted the estimated length will remain the same. So that chain must be pulled tight during the chain binding.
- Error in chain surveying due to incorrect ranging.
- If the chain is placed out of line while measuring alone, the measured length will remain the maximum. For, the balance must be correct before taking the measurement.
- Error in chain surveying due to temperature change.
- If the chain or tape is a certain temperature measurement and the temperature during the measurement is very different. There will be errors in the gain due to changes in the range of the chain or tape. This type of error should be compensated by correcting the estimated length.
- Error in chain surveying due to variation in pull.
- If the drag used between the chains is different from the normal pull, the length of the tape will change. So that during the chain pull it is used properly.
- Error in chain surveying due to slope measurements.
- While measuring the slopes alone using a treadmill, the chain may straighten during the measurement leading to an error. Therefore, the chain should be straight while measuring the soft surface.
Advantages of Chain Surveying:
There are various advantages of using chain surveying in field those are.
- The equipment used to do chain research is easy to use.
- Chain research is a simple and common method used in exercise surveying.
- The equipment used in the chain research can be easily replaced.
Disadvantages of Chain Surveying:
There are various disadvantages of using chain surveying in field those are.
- Simple chain surveying cannot be done in built-up areas.
- Chain surveying takes much more time compared to other surveying methods.
- Chain research becomes the most sophisticated method where there are raised points between areas to be explored.