What Is Steel?
Steel is the most adaptable and widely used construction material. Steel is made up of the important materials metallic iron as well as nonmetallic carbon, as well as trace amounts of silicon, nickel, manganese, chromium, including copper.
As a consequence, it is an alloy. While steel is typically composed of more than 90 % of iron, several elements found in trace amounts have a significant impact on the properties of steel.
Steel structural parts have a solid, stiff foundation for the building and account for 25 % of all steel used in buildings. These steel reinforcing bars provide tensile strength and hardness to concrete and account for 44 percent of steel used in houses.
Steel is used because it adheres well to concrete, has a comparable thermal expansion coefficient, is solid, and is relatively inexpensive. Reinforced concrete, which is still the world’s main construction material, is also used to provide strong foundations and basements.
Sheet products such as roofing, purlins, interior walls, ceilings, cladding, and insulating panels for external walls account for 31% of overall revenue.
Steel is also used in a number of non-structural construction uses, such as heating and cooling devices and internal ducting. Steel is also used for internal equipments including such rails, shelving, as well as stairs.
Steel is used in the construction of bridges, tunnels, rail tracks, and structures such as gas stations, railway stations, ports, and airports. Around 60% of the steel used in this application is rebar, with the remainder being parts, pipes, and rail track.
About half of the steel included in this project is in underwater pipes that carry water and gas to and from residences. The remainder is primarily rebar for power plants and pumping stations.
Types of Steel
The different types of steel are as follows.
- Rebar Steel.
- Structural Steel.
- Mild Steel.
1. Rebar Steel
Rebar Steel, sometimes recognized as reinforcing steel or fortifying steel, is a type of steel that is used as a strain mechanism in reinforced concrete or reinforced masonry structures.
It is made of carbon steel and has edges for mechanical binding together in a dominant direction in the solid.
It keeps the solid under pressure and is available in a variety of grades with differing requirements in yield strength, critical elasticity, chemical composition, including elongation percentage.
Rebar steel gives toughness and aesthetic tolerance, as well as local resistance and hardness that extends over a large area that other forms of steel aren’t usually prepared in.
It has tremendous extension capacity and comes in various sizes depending on the country and growth. Rebar has proved to be beneficial due to its recyclable properties.
There are different forms of rebar steel:
- Plain Steel Wire Used for Concrete Reinforcement
- Epoxy Coated Steel Bars for Welded Deformed Steel Reinforcement
- Plain Bars and Rail Steel Deformed Bars
- Stainless Steel
- Low-Alloy Steel
- Axel Steel
- Fabricated Deformed Steel Bar Mats
- Low Carbon Steel Bars
- Chromium Bars
2. Structural Steel
Structural steel is a kind of metal used to make building materials. It is divided into shapes, each with its own compositional properties that make it suitable for unique uses in construction.
Structural steel forms come in a variety of shapes.
- Flat sections: Flat sections are the most adaptable steel sections since they cannot be connected to another section. As a reinforcing unit, they may be connected to another section. They are often referred to as plates, such as checker plate.
- Hollow Sections: Circular Hollow Sections include empty cylindrical cross segments that are much more resistant to torsion than flange beams. The thickness of the walls is uniform across the circle, making these pillars ideal for use in multi-axis loading applications. They have rectangular cross sections as well as circular hollow sections. These are well with a wide range of mechanical and structural steel applications. These portions are usually used for lightweight posts and columns. This are inappropriate for pillars and their forms are notoriously difficult to hurry into various shapes and where heavy loads are shifted to them.
- Universal Beam: Universal beams is likewise called as I-beams or H-beams, are shaped like their namesake, an ‘I’ when standing upstanding, and a ‘H’ on their side. Universal beams are ordinarily made of underlying steel and are utilized in development and primary structure, among various endeavors.
- Parallel Flange Channels: Such redirected beams are U-shaped of right-angled edges, similar to a stick of staples. These come in a variety of sizes, but the various sides are generally a similar length almost parallel to each other. They also have a high strength to weight proportion and can be used in the same manner as angled pieces can.
3. Mild Steel
Mild steel is a type of steel that is widely used in building construction due to its unusually long longevity and strength.
Mild steel does not crack when bowed, as shown by its enormous flexibility in bringing about the truth. It can withstand major disasters such as earthquakes.
Even in a critical situation, a house with plain carbon steel at its foundation is hardly vulnerable to destruction or cracking. Mild steel typically produces 0.05 percent to 0.25 percent biomass, as well as two yield focuses.
Steel, a viable and cost-effective alternative to other building materials, is the only material that can deliver the consistency needed for construction.
How to Calculate Unit Weight of Steel Bars?
1. Unit Weight of Steel Flat Bars
Mild steel has a density of 7850kg/m3. The diameter and thickness of a mild steel flat bar are measured in millimetres. If this is the case, the weight of the steel bar is given by:
- Steel bar weight = volume of steel bar x density of steel
- Steel Flat Bar Weight = (Length x Width x Thickness) x 7850
2. Unit Weight of Steel Rods
Steel has a density of 7850kg/m3 in this case. The diameters of mild steel round bars are defined in millimetres (mm). If this is the case, the weight of the steel bar is given by:
- Steel bar weight = steel bar volume Steel Density x Steel Bar
- Steel rod weight = (Cross sectional area of steel rod x Length) x 7850 kg/m3
- Steel Bar Weight = (3.14 x (D2 /4) x L) x 7850 kg/m3
- Steel Bar Weight = (D2 x 6162.25L) / 1000000
- Steel Bar Weight = D2L x 0.006162
- Steel Bar Weight = D2L / 162.28
- Steel Bar Weight for M = [D2L / 162.28]
- Steel Bar Weight for for Ft = [ D2L / 533]
To compute the unit weight, length “L’ turn into 1.
Calculation of Weight of Steel Bar for 1-Metre Length
The most common method for determining the unit weight of a rod per metre length is D2/162.2.
- Weight of steel bar per metre = Area of steel x Density of steel x Bar length
- Weight of steel bar per metre = ( 3.14 x D2 / 4) x 7850 kg /m3 x 1 m
- Weight of steel bar per metre = ( D2 x 6162.25 ) / ( 1000 x 1000 )
- Weight of steel bar per metre = D2 x 1 / (0.006162) – 1
- Weight of steel bar per metre = D2 / 162.28
For MS Flat Bar
- Steel Flat Bar Weight = ( Length x Width x Thickness ) x 7850
- Let, MS width of a flat bar = 50 mm and 30 mm in length.
- Since we all knows, the weight of a steel bar is equal to the volume of the steel bar multiplied by the density of the steel.
- Steel bar weight = (length x width x thickness) x 7850
- Unit Steel bar weight = (1 x.050 x.030) x 7850 = 11.775 kg/m
For circular Steel Rods
- Steel unit weight formula = D2 / 162 kg/m
- Let, Weight of steel = 102 / 162 = 0.617 kg/m x 1 m = 0.617 kg
- If we were to measure the unit weight of a 10mm steel rod of one metre height, we will use the formula:
- Weight of steel = 102 / 162 = 0.617 kg/m x 1 m
- Weight of steel = 0.617 kg
- As a result, one metre of 10 mm steel weighs roughly 0.617 kg
Derivation of Formula for Calculating Unit Weight of Steel
Steel unit weight formula = D2 / 162 kg/m
- Weight of steel = 102 / 162
- Weight of steel= 0.617 kg/m x 1 m
- Weight of steel = 0.617 kg
As a result, one metre of 10 mm steel weighs roughly 0.617 kilogrammes.
Putting all of the values together,
- W = 3.14 D2 / (410001000) * 1 7850 kg/m
- W = D2/ 26649 / 4000000 kg/m
- W = D2/ 0.006162 kg/m
- W = D2( D2/1/ 0.006162 ) kg /m
1 divided by 0.006162 equals 162.2
We get 162.2 162 after rounding up.
D2/162 kg/m weight
Weight = D2 /162 kg/m is the formula used for Steel bar unit weight construction.
Self Weight of Steel
Unit weight of steel = 7850 kg/m3
Steel Bar Weight Formula
Formula for weight calculation of steel bars = D2/162 kg/m
Unit Weight of Steel Formula
Weight = Density × Volume ( Volume = Area x Length)