Types of Wood

Introduction of Wood

Introduction of Wood Wood is one of several renewable natural coffers. It’s an important product used in our day-to-day life and the economy, which Different Types are used in house timber and furnishings; journals, books, and magazines. Road slumberers, ground timber, barrier posts, service poles, fuelwood, textile fabrics, and organic chemicals are also used. Wood … Read more

Information About Contractor

Introduction of Contractors Three major parties are committed to each construction design: the holder, the contractor, and the operating company. A construction contractor is consistently reliable for planning and related construction activity and ensuring that the design is finalized on time and within the funding. There are various contractors for each type of work because … Read more

Standard Kitchen Counter Height

All About of Standard Kitchen Counter Height

Standard Kitchen Counter Height The measurement from the floor to the surface of the counter is called kitchen counter height. The kitchen counter height can vary depending on the specific preferences of the owner or on the material that is being used but there are also standard kitchen counter heights that are used worldwide. The … Read more

Construction Project Cost Breakdown

All About of Construction project cost breakdown

Introduction of Construction Project Cost Breakdown In any circumstance, the transparency and rational structure of the expense breakdown is a must-have. Structuring a cost breakdown efficiently and rightly is a monotonous assignment, but it’s necessary for unborn communication with callers and a more reasonable interpretation of how payments can be had in the lesson of … Read more

Estimate Cost of Construction Per Sq Ft

All About of Estimate Cost of Construction Per Sq Ft

Introduction of Estimate Cost of Construction Per Sq Ft First, we must understand the asked price of every material used for construction. Computing the cost is facilitated further in a multicolored pattern, and forming the accounting from the foundation is health-giving. Still, preferring excel wastes available online might break your problem fluently. The construction cost … Read more

Types of Crawl Space Insulation | Fiber glass Batt Insulation | Closed Cell Spray Foam Insulation | Open-Cell Foam Spray Insulation | Rigid Foam Insulation and Use|

Information of  crawl space insulation

Information of  crawl space insulation There are two types of crawl space insulation that are majorly used. The first is rigid foam insulation, and the second is closed cell spray foam insulation. Rigid foam insulation is the type of insulation inserted against the walls and spray foam works as SPF insulation inserted in the joints … Read more

Top 10 Tiles Companies in India 2021

Top 10 Tiles Companies in India 2021

Top 20+ Tiles Brand Name List [table responsive=”yes” alternate=”yes” fixed=”no” class=””] Sr.No. Tiles Brand Name List 1 Johnson Tiles 2 Bajaj Tiles 3 Simpolo Tiles 4 Swastik Tiles 5 Pacific Ind Tiles 6 Varmora Tiles 7 Pokarna Tiles 8 Divyashakti Tiles 9 Pacific Ind Tiles 10 Restile Ceramic Tiles 11 Kajaria Ceramics Ltd 12 Somany … Read more

What Is Traffic Rotaries? | Rotary Intersection | What Is Rotary Island? | Advantages & Disadvantages of Traffic Rotary

all about Traffic Rotaries

What Is Traffic Rotaries? Traffic rotaries or intersections are a special type of intersection designed by civil engineers where all the traffic is forced to move in one direction across the central island of traffic rotary. All the junction hazards, disputes, or major clash of right turn motion is turned into milder by mixing and … Read more

What Is Tie Beam? | Tie Beam Details | Ties in Column | Tie Beam Design | Concrete Tie Beam | Tie Beam Reinforcement Details

all about of Tie Beam

What Is Tie Beam? Tie beams are beams that link two or more columns or rafters in a roof or truss, or at some height above floor level, to strengthen and stabilize the whole structure at the base level, at the roof truss, and floor level, tie beams, and a plinth are usually supported. They … Read more

Types of Curing | Concrete Curing Time | How to Cure a New Concrete Slab | What Is Curing of Concrete | How Long Does Concrete Take to Dry | How Long Does It Take for Cement to Dry

curing13

What Is Curing of Concrete? Too kept within the recommended temperature range and the concrete is protected against loss of moisture required for hydration the curing method is done. The curing will decrease the permeability of hardened concrete and will increase the strength of hardened concrete. The curing is also helped in mitigating plastic cracks and … Read more

What Is Sheepsfoot Roller? | Characteristics of Sheepsfoot Rollers | Difference Between Padfoot and Sheepsfoot Rollers

Sheepsfoot Roller

What Is Sheepsfoot Roller? Sheepsfoot rollers are vibratory compacting devices that are mostly used for soil and aggregate compaction. It is one of the most widely used soil compactors for builders and contractors worldwide. The sheepsfoot roller is a form of self-propelled heavy machinery that is usually mowed and operates in a static position. Depending … Read more

Monolithic Slab I Monolithic Definition I Monolithicfooting I Monolithic Slab Foundationl Monolithic Slab Foundation Design L What Is a Monolithic Slab L How to Form a Monolithic Slab

Monolithic Slab

Monolithic Slab Monolithic means “all single pouring,” so the foundation is made of a single layer of a concrete slide with thick surfaces under load-bearing walls and all the edges of the perimeter to replace the footer. Because this Slab is applied simultaneously, it is very fast and keeps labor costs low. Monolithic Definition    … Read more

What Is Workability | What Is Workability of Concrete | Types of Workability of Concrete | Factors Affecting Workability of Concrete

What Is Workability? Workability is an essential property of concrete that is related to compaction as well as power. The optimal workability varies depending on the grade of concrete. Rather than mass concreting, a thin inaccessible portion or highly reinforced section with greater workability is desired. As a result, we cannot create workability standards for various … Read more

What Is Sewerage System? | Types of Sewerage System | Why We Need a Partially Separate System? | How Does a Sewer System Work? | How Does a Sewage Treatment Plant Work?

all about of Sewerage System (3)

What Is Sewerage System? A sewage system is a pipeline network, pumps, and power to force the collection of wastewaters, or sewage, from the community. Modern sewer systems fall under two categories: domestic and industrial sewers and storm sewage. Sometimes an integrated system provides only one network of pipelines, main pipelines, and sewer pipes that … Read more

What Is Seasoning of Timber? | Methods of Seasoning of Timber | Purpose of Seasoning of Timber

all about of Seasoning of Timber (1)

What Is Seasoning of Timber? Seasoning of timber is a process that is applied on the wood piece to reduce the moisture content, which was absorbed by that timber, to a certain level. A properly well-seasoned timber wood contains only 15% moisture content. Reducing the moisture content by the seasoning method helps to regain the … Read more

What Is Gradient of Road? | Limiting Gradient of Road | Types of Gradient of Road | Exceptional Gradient of Road | The Gradient of Road | Purpose of Providing Gradient of Road | Importance of Gradient in Roads

all about of Gradient of Road

What Is Gradient of Road? The gradient is the rise and fall of the gradient with respect to the horizontal line. Gradients are mainly four types those are- Ruling gradient: This type of gradient is the maximum gradient that is provided on the highway. It is also termed the designer gradient. Ruling gradient depends on … Read more

What Is Lap Length? | Lap Length in Beam | Why Lapping Is Provided? | How to Calculate Lap Length? | Lap Length as Per Is Code 456 | What Are the General Rules for Lap Length? | Lapping Zone

What Is Lap Length? Lap length is specified as the length given to enable the overlapping of two reinforcement bars, enabling secure and efficient load transfer through one bar to another. Once the reinforcement bars are mounted, the length of a single reinforcement bar will not be adequate. Throughout this scenario, the required design length … Read more

Hollow Block | Hollow Concrete Block | Hollow Concrete Block Size |Hollow Concrete Block Advantage | Hollow Concrete Block Disadvantage | Hollow Concrete Wall | Hollow Block Construction | Size of Hollow Blocks | How to Make Hollow Blocks

all about of Hollow Block

Introduction Hollow Block Typically, Hollow Block is a type of concrete block used to build interior and exterior walls. Empty concrete block saves time in building walls due to its large size. Due to its load capacity, Hollow Block plays an important role in the construction industry. Hollow Block are made using a mold and … Read more

What Is Heat Resistance Concrete? | Reinforcement in Heat Resisting Concrete | Properties of Heat Resisting Concrete | Application of Heat Resisting Concrete | Advantages & Disadvantages of Heat Resisting Concrete

all about of Heat Resisting Concrete

Heat Resisting Concrete Introduction: Innovative products are produced from the industry day by day, and they also produced different types of concrete from the concrete industry. Heat-resisting concrete is a special type of concrete that is used in extreme temperature conditions. What Is Heat Resisting Concrete? Heat-resisting concrete is a special type of concrete that … Read more

Hand Level Surveying | What Is Site Level? | What Is Hand Level? | How to Use a Hand Sight Level | Estimating Distances with a Sight Level

Hand Level Surveying What Is Site Level What Is Hand Level (1)

Hand Level Surveying Grading contractors and land surveyors also use the hand level as a tool. To find a height or horizontal space, a hand level compares several points to a reference point. For preliminary land survey jobs, basic distance measuring, or any other site task, hand level surveying is perfect. Since it does not … Read more

Types of Cement Grades | Difference Between 33, 43 & 53 Grade Cement

Types of Cement Grades

Introduction of Cement Cement is the foremost vital module of engineering construction jobs. Concrete is created by blending sand, aggregate, cement & water at a specific proportion. The brawn of Concrete is especially attained by the brawn of Cement, i.e. Concrete brawn is directly proportional to cement brawn which in turn decides the brawn of structure. … Read more

What Is Panelled Window? | What Is Glazed Window? | Difference Between Paneled Window and Glazed Window

Difference Between Paneled Window and Glazed Window

Introduction of Panelled Window and Glazed Window The window is one of the vital building components. By the window sunlight, ventilation of the building is properly balanced. It also regulates the temperature of the house; it also highlights the house. The window provided a sensation of transparency to the living territories. When we construct a … Read more

What Is Fresh Concrete? | Properties of Fresh Concrete | Factors Affecting Workability

all about of Fresh Concrete

What Is Fresh Concrete? Fresh Concrete – Fresh concrete is often molded to a sturdy structural module. Fresh concrete is in the plastic state. It is often manufactured on spot & provides a vast variety of features. It is cohesive & possesses considerable quantities of cement & fines. Sometimes it’s also referred to as green concrete. It could be white concrete with subtle warm gray … Read more

What Is Flyash Brick? | Fly Ash Bricks Cost | Properties of Flyash Bricks | Fly Ash Bricks Manufacturing Process | Compressive Strength of Fly Ash Brick | Fly Ash Brick Size | Advantages & Disadvantages of Fly Ash Bricks

all about of Flyash Brick

What Is Flyash Brick? The ash created during coal combustion is known as fly ash. It’s a crystalline dust made from coal power mineral content, which is made up of non-combustible matter and a small volume of carbon left over from combustion products. These are cured for at least 14 days before being completely dry … Read more

What Is Estimate? | Types of Estimate | Advantage of Estimate | Disadvantage of Estimate

all about of Estimate

What Is Estimate? An estimate is an anticipated or probable cost of job & is generally prepared before the development order is taken up. An estimate is actually a computation or calculation or evaluation of the amounts of materials required & expenditure generally included in the development of a structure. The original cost is known … Read more

What Is Epoxy? | What Is Epoxy Flooring? | Types of Epoxy Flooring | Advantages of Epoxy Flooring | Disadvantages of Epoxy Flooring | Uses of Epoxy Flooring | Application Process of Epoxy Flooring

all about of Epoxy Flooring (3)

Introduction of Epoxy Flooring Usually, chemical resins are a group of short-chain polymers that contains epoxide groups at their ends. Epoxy was 1st discovered by curing the polymer with a phthalic acid anhydride by Swiss Scientist Pierre Castan in 1936. In 1946 Industrial & commercial usage of the compound started. During the middle of the … Read more

Difference Between Short Column and Long Column

Difference Between Short Column and Long Column

Difference Between Short Column and Long Column There are many differences between the Short column and the Long column, some of which are given below. A short column is a column whose ratio of its actual or effective length and its minimum lateral dimension is less than or equal to 12. A column with such … Read more

What Is Timber ? | What Is Lumber ? | What Is Lumber Used for ? | Lumber Vs Wood | Difference Between Lumber and Timber | Standard Wood Size | What Is Timber Used for ?

Difference Between Lumber and Timber (2)

What Is Timber? Timber is a phrase that has numerous meanings and is often used interchangeably with the phrase lumber in many parts of the world. Timber usually refers to either unfelled trees or harvested trees that have been left with their bark or other traits for aesthetic reasons. Timber is a flexible raw material … Read more

Concrete Slump Test | Principle of Slump Test | What Is Slump Test ? | How to Measure Concrete Slump? | Slump Test Results | Concrete Slump Test Procedures |

all about of Slump Test (1)

Concrete Slump Test The aim of a concrete slump test or slump cone testing is to measure the workability or quality of a concrete mix formulated mostly in a lab or even on the construction site while the work is being done. Concrete slump tests are performed from different batches to ensure that the condition … Read more

Difference Between Coarse Aggregate and Fine Aggregate | What Is Coarse Aggregate? | What Is Fine Aggregate? | Advantage of coarse aggregates | Advantage of Fine Aggregate

Difference Between Coarse Aggregate and Fine Aggregate (3)

Introduction of Coarse Vs Fine Aggregate :- In construction the coarse aggregates are larger size filler materials. The particles that retain on 4.75 mm sieve is called coarse aggregates. In concrete gravels, pebbles, broken bricks, stone chips, clinkers, cinders etc. are used as coarse aggregate. The major sources of coarse aggregate are, dolomite aggregates, natural … Read more

Concrete Vs Cement | Definition  of Cement and Concrete | Composition of Cement and Concrete | Types of Cement and Concrete | Properties of Cement and Concrete | Uses of Cement and Concrete | Advantages of Cement and Concrete | Disadvantages of Cement and Concrete

Concrete Vs Cement

Concrete Vs Cement Definition  of Cement and Concrete Definition  of Cement Cement is the greatest significant building material and is a binding agent who sets in addition to hardening to keep building components, including such as stones, bricks, tiles, respectively. Cement usually mentions appropriating finely powdered matter primarily prepared up of limestone (calcium), sand or … Read more

Concrete Release Agent | Concrete Form Release Agent | Concrete Formwork Release Agent | Concrete Form Release Oil | Concrete Mold Release Agent | Homemade Concrete Release Agent | Concrete Release Agent for Wood | How to Keep Concrete from Sticking to Wood | Fiberglass Release Agent |

Concrete Release Agent- (1)

Concrete Release Agent:- The concrete release agent is a combination of plant oil, mineral oil, and paraffin together with different additives. To reduce viscosity, the additives may take the form of solvents. such as fatty acids that react chemically like Release-enhancing substances with the concrete water may also be employed. to allow quick removal of shuttering or … Read more

What Are Conceptual Sketches | Concept Sketch Definition | Use of Concept Sketches in Class | Using Concept Sketches in the Field | Architecture Concept Drawings | Difference Between Sketches and Drawings

Conceptual Sketches

What Are Conceptual Sketches A concept sketch is more than just a diagram of labels. We’ve included a few samples of design sketches; a quick look at them will reveal how different they are from the typical diagrams used in textbooks or that we, as professors, often draw on the board in class. concept captions … Read more

What Is Ceramic Tiles? | Advantages & Disadvantages of Ceramic Tiles | What Is Vitrified Tiles? | Advantages & Disadvantages Vitrified Tiles | Differences Between Ceramic Tiles and Vitrified Tiles

Differences Between Ceramic Tiles and Vitrified Tiles (1)

Introduction of Ceramic and Vitrified Tiles: What Is Ceramic Tiles? Ceramic is a term that is used to refer to all types of natural soil or clay. Ceramic tiles are composed of minerals, clay, and other solvents. Ceramic refers to a certain range of things – ceramic tiles, cutlery, inlay for teeth, decorative fine art, … Read more

What Is Gable Roof | History of Gable Roofing | Gable Roof Design | Parts of Gable Roof | 7 Types of Gable Roofs | How Long Can the Roof Last? | Gable Roof Advantages and Disadvantages | Cost of Gable Roof Construction |

Gable Roof (1)

What Is Gable Roof? The gable roof is also called a pitched roof. In this type of roof, two sloping sides peak at the top centre. It is used for many building designs and has two sloping sides which meet to form a ridge. Colours, shapes, and locations are used to tweak it. A modern … Read more

Building Layout | How to Building Layout | Construction Layout Techniques

Building Layout

Building Layout The true intention and intent of setting out (layout) are to move the plan, length, and width of the base on the ground so that the foundation can be excavated for the construction of the intended building according to the drawing. Before actually preparing the construction of the building, the following preliminary works … Read more

How a Building Is Constructed | Components of Building

Building Is Constructed (1)

How a Building Is Constructed In the building construction process, there have two main part that’s are below- 1. Pre-Construction Steps In building construction, the pre-construction steps are more important and first taking steps. Acquire Land Consultant Seek / Technical. Design Process. Prepare Estimation and Budgets. Building Permits. Approach a Contractor. Building Warranty Period. 1.1 … Read more

What Is Bituminous Road? | Bituminous Road Construction | Bituminous Road Layers | Bituminous Macadam | Bituminous Road Construction Process | Advantages of Bitumen Road | Disadvantages of Bitumen Road | Application Road

Bituminous Road

What Is Bituminous Road? Bitumen is dark viscous material which is sticky in nature, it mainly founds in natural deposits. Generally, a bituminous road surface is made of bitumen material. Now a days these roads are constructed because of low initial cost and low maintenance cost. Bituminous roads also produce less sound with compare to … Read more

What Is Super Elevation? | Superelevation Definition | Purpose of Providing Superelevation in Roads | Calculation of Superelevation in Roads | Minimum and Maximum Superelevation in Roads | Method of Providing Superelevation to the Roads

all about of Superelevation

What Is Super Elevation? The banking of highway horizontal curves to support the operator by countering the blateral acceleration generated by monitoring the curve is known as superelevation. Superelevation is represented as an integer, reflecting the slope-to-width ratio of the pavement, which ranges from 0.04 to 0.12. Proper superelevation requires a car to transform at … Read more

What Is Grouting | Type of Grouting | Experiment of Grouting | Characteristics of Grouting | Types of Grout for Ceramic Tile | Advantage of Grouting | Disadvantage of Grouting

Grouting (1)

What Is Grouting To increase the load-bearing capacity of the concrete, masonry structure, rock mass, or soil the materials are injecting into the cracks or cavities is known as grouting and the material that is used for grouting is called grout. As a grout to fill the gaps a mixture of cement, sand, water or … Read more

What Is Grade of Concrete | Concrete Mix Ratio | Type of Concrete Mix | Different Types of Concrete Grade with Concrete Mix Ratio and Compressive Strength | Uses of Different Grades of Concrete

Grade of Concrete (1)

What Is Grade of Concrete By the composition and strength of the concrete, the grades of concrete are defining. For the initial construction, the minimum strength of concrete should have followed at 28 days. The grade of concrete is expressed in the measurement MPa. Where the M is stand for mix and the MPa expressed … Read more

What Is Hidden Beam | Why Is It Used | Where Is It Used in Buildings | How to Design a Hidden Beam | Purpose of Hidden Beam | Advantages of Hidden Beam | Disadvantages of Hidden Beam

all about of hidden beam (1)

What Is Hidden Beam? A Hidden beam could be a reinforced concrete beam, additionally referred to as concealed beam provided at intervals within the depth of supporting slabs. So, the depth of the hidden beam is that the same as block or slab depth because it is detected. Concealed beams are widespread and form an … Read more

What Is Combined Footing | Types of Combined Footing | Advantage & Disadvantage of Combined Footing | Application of Combined Footing

All about of Combined Footing

Introduction of Combined Footing Combined footings are developed when two or more columns are close to one another & their foundations overlap each other. The function of a footing or a foundation is to convey the load form the structure to the underlying soil. The selection of ideal footing style is according to the depth of bearing strata, the soil … Read more

Density of Cement Sand and Aggregate | Density of Cement | Density of Sand | Density of Aggregate

Density of Cement Sand and Aggregate

Density of Cement Sand and Aggregate We know the density which is also known as unit weight, its mass per unit volume of area of that material. The density is denoted by the symbol by RHO (ρ), it defines the degree of compactness of material. Density refers that which material density is high then that … Read more

What Is Mortar | Uses of Mortar | Advantages & Disadvantages of Mortar | Applications of Mortar | Properties of Mortar

All About of mortar

What Is Mortar? Mortar is an aggregate paste made by sand, cement (binding material) & water or by lime, surkhi & water. Sand & surkhi give strength to the mortar. The brawn of mortar diminishes as quantity of sand surges. A blend of Cement: Sand= 1:3 is best. Water required for a far better result … Read more

What Is Steel | Types of Steel | How to Calculate Unit Weight of Steel Bars | Calculation of Weight of Steel Bar for 1-Metre Length | Self Weight of Steel

Unit Weight of Steel Bars

What Is Steel? Steel is the most adaptable and widely used construction material. Steel is made up of the important materials metallic iron as well as nonmetallic carbon, as well as trace amounts of silicon, nickel, manganese, chromium, including copper. As a consequence, it is an alloy. While steel is typically composed of more than … Read more

What Is Chain Surveying | Principle of Chain Surveying | Procedure of Chain Surveying | Error in Chain Surveying | Advantages & Disadvantagesof Chain Surveying

All about of Chain Surveying

Introduction of Chain Surveying Chain surveying is a branch of surveying where only accurate measurements are made in the field. This is especially true for small, detailed areas with a flat surface. It gets its name from the fact that the most widely used basic tool is the chain. What Is Chain Surveying? Chain surveying … Read more

Difference Between Cement Plaster and Gypsum Plaster

Difference Between Cement Plaster and Gypsum Plaster

Introduction Between Cement Plaster Vs Gypsum Plaster  The cement plaster is an intimate mixture of Portland cement, sand with water. The mixture ratio of cement plaster is varied with the requirements of the work purpose. The cement plaster mixed at the site as required quantity of the work and nowadays it is available in the readymade … Read more

What is WPC Boards | WPC Board Characteristics | Advantages & Disadvantages of WPC Boards | Uses of WPC Boards | Applications of WPC Boards

What Is WPC Board? The term “wood plastic composite” refers to a panel or lumber component constructed from recycled plastic and small wood particles or fibers. Wood-plastic composites are comparatively recent materials as opposed to natural timber or conventional wood composites such as particleboard or fiberboard, which have a long history. WPC Boards are the … Read more

What Is Development Length | Why We Provide Development Length | How to Calculate Development Length | Development Length for Single Bars

All about of Development Length

What Is Development Length? Development length is defined as the minimal size of the bar that must be set in concrete beyond one segment in order to build its maximum strength, but is also regarded as an anchorage length in situations of axial tension or axial compression. Why We Provide Development Length? Such length is expected … Read more

How to Calculate Quantity of Material For Plaster | Measurement of Plastering Quantities | Material for 20 mm Thick Plastering in Wall for 100 Sq.m.

How to Calculate Quantity of Material for Plaster

How to Calculate Quantity of Material for Plaster? Plastering is the practice of coating rough walls and uneven surfaces in the building of houses and other buildings with a plastic substance, called plaster, which is a combination of lime or cement concrete and sand together with the requisite quantity of water. It should stick to … Read more

10 Difference Between One way and Two way Slab | What Is the Slab | What Is a One Way Slab | What Is Two Way Slab

Difference Between One way and Two way Slab

What Is the Slab? A slab is an important structural feature that provides flat surfaces in buildings. Slabs are commonly categorised as one-way or two-way based on the reinforcement offered, beam support, and span ratio. The former is endorsed on both ends, and the long-to-short time ratio is greater than two. The above, on the other … Read more

What Is Contour Interval | How to Find the Contour Interval | Uses of Contour Intervals in Surveying | Reading Contour Lines | What Is Importance of Topographic Maps

All about Contour

What Is Contour Interval? A contour interval may be a perpendicular distance or dissimilarity in altitude between two adjacent contour lines in a topographic map. Contour Interval on Topographic Map Index contours are prominent or dense lines that bob up at every 5th isometric line. Generally, there are totally distinct contour intervals for various maps. For a relief map … Read more

What Is Plinth | What Is Plinth Beam | What Is Plinth Protection | Purpose of the Plinth Beam in a Structure | Advantages & Disadvantages of Plinth Beam

ALL About of Plinth Beam

What Is Plinth? In construction between the ground floor level and ground-level portion of the building is known as a plinth. It is generally constructed by stone masonry. To support the superstructure, when the foundation is on piles the plinth is constructed. A 75mm thick damp proof course of plane cement concrete provides on the top of … Read more

What Is Plum Concrete | Purpose of Plum Concrete | How to Prepare Plum Concrete | Advantages & Disdvantages of Plum Concrete

All about of Plum concrete

What Is Plum Concrete? Plum concrete is created mostly by the participation of large and medium rocks of usual size to 300mm or perhaps even greater as filling. It’s being used to improve the evident yielding of concrete for a provided weight of the cement that is to prevent utilizing an excessive quantity of concrete … Read more