Which of the Following Is a Way That Slopes Fail | Types of Slope Failure | Types of Slopes in Geography | Causes of Slope Failure

Which of the Following Is a Way That Slopes Fail | Types of Slope Failure | Geotechnical Failures | Types of Slopes in Geography | Causes of Slope Failure | Slope Stability

Which of the Following Is a Way That Slopes Fail?

The large block falls from cliffs. Rocks, soil, sediment & ice slide deep down hillsides. Pieces of rock accumulated on Talus slope until angle became too steep. Soil & other loose materials can flow rapidly down-slopes, forming debris flows. All of these.

Types of Slope Failure

Here, the different types of slope failure are as follows.

  • Translational Failure.
  • Rotational Failure.
  • Flow Failure.
  • Block or Wedge Failure.
  • Rock Slope Failure.
  • Plane Failure.
  • Toppling Failure.
  • Rock Failure.
  • Compound Failure.

1. Translational Failure

Translational Failure

Failure of a slope on a weak zone of soil is named a travel slide. A travel slide happens once slope failure happens parallel to the slope. Translational slides square measure common in coarse-grained soils.

2. Rotational Failure

Rotational Failure

Usually seen in fine-grained soils. This failure could be a move slide that has its purpose of rotation on a rotational axis parallel to the slope. The side of the slide tilts backward toward the initial slope and also the lower surface moves aloof from the slope.

Three kinds of rotational failure:

  • Base Failure: A soft soil layer resting on a stiff layer of soil is susceptible to base failure.
  • Toe Failure: Another kind is the toe slide, whereby the failure surface passes through the toe of the slope.
  • Slope Failure: Another is the slope slide, whereby the failure surface passes through the slope.

3. Flow Failure

Flow Failure

Occurs once internal and external conditions force a soil to behave sort of a viscous fluid and flow down even shallow slopes, spreading come in many directions. Multiple failure surfaces sometimes occur and alter incessantly as flow takings. Flow slides will occur in dry and wet soils.

4. Block or Wedge Failure

Block or Wedge Failure

This failure causes a rock mass to slip on 2 intersectant discontinuities forming a tension crack. This mode of failure desires the dip angle of a minimum of one joint intersection to be larger than the angle of friction of the joint surface.

The conditions necessary for propagation of wedge failure:

  • The plunge line of the intersection ought to be larger than the friction angle of the slope.
  • The line of intersection ought to ‘daylight’ on the slope. This suggests that the dip angle of the intersection ought to be but the dip angle of the slope.

5. Rock Slope Failure

Rock Slope Failure

The orientation and spacing of the discontinuities plane with reference to the slope are the determinants of rock slope failure. Failure may arise from one separation or a pattern of multiple discontinuities.

6. Plane Failure

Plane Failure

The failure surface in flat failures square measure resulted by single structural discontinuities like bedding planes, faults or the interface between weatherworn rock and also the underlying bedrock.

Conditions for Plane Failure Square Measure as Follows:

  • The strikes of each the slippy plane and also the slope face lie parallel (±20°) to every alternative.
  • The dip angle of the failure plane is often referred to as Daylight.
  • The dip of the slippy plane is larger (angle of friction).

7. Toppling Failure

Toppling Failure

Thanks to steep discontinuities within the rock that eventually results in slippage of the layers and also the outward and downward movement of a column of rock. This falling action is the column’s centre of gravity lying outside the bottom dimensions.

8. Rock Failure

Rock Failure

A rock mass of any size is detached from a steep slope or formation wherever there’s little or no shear resistance. It may dislodge and impinge on alternative rocks in its mechanical phenomenon.

9. Compound Failure

Compound Failure

A combination of rotational and translational slide failure. As the combination suggests, failure occurs when the slip surface curves at both ends but has a level or flat central point.

Geotechnical Failures

Geotechnical failures are often categorised as follows:

  • Failure of Foundation
  • Landslide

1. Failure of Foundation

Many factors resulted in failure of foundations and resulted within the damage of the superstructures. e.g., the foundations were liable to landslides, debris flows, etc. The large settlement and uneven settlement were seen ensuing from the lost of bearing capacity.

2. Landslide

The rainfall-induced landslides during this case enclosed that of change of location and motility. A number of the failures were surficial and shallow.

Types of Slopes in Geography

Here, the different types of slopes in geography are as follows.

  • Gentle
  • Steep
  • Concave
  • Convex
  • Tectonic
  • Depositional

Let’s know about detail knowledge for types of slopes in geography.

  1. Gentle: Contour lines showing a regular, light slope are going to be equally spaced and wide apart. A slope with contour lines unfolds way except one another.
  2. Steep: Contour lines showing a regular, steep slope on a map are going to be equally spaced, however approximate.
  3. Concave: Contour lines showing a slope on a map are going to be closely spaced at the highest of the piece of ground feature and wide-spaced at rock bottom.
  4. Convex: Contour lines showing a lentiform slope on a map are going to be wide-spaced at the highest and closely spaced at rock bottom.
  5. Tectonic: These square measure fashioned through internal forces that end in the folding, distortion and faulting of rock layers. Anticlines and synclines are fashioned once layers of rock square measure folded; whereas horsts (block mountains) and graben (rift valleys) are fashioned once blocks of land rising or fall.
  6. Depositional: Deposits of weather material build-up to make inclined surfaces, mounds associate degreed hills once an agent of abrasion that has lost its energy of motion lays down its load in a very specific place.

Slope Stability

Safety Factor (SF) = The magnitude relation of resisting forces to driving forces:

SF = Resisting Forces/ Driving Forces

  • If SF >1 then SAFE
  • If SF < 1 then UNSAFE

Safety Factor

It may be calculated by the unit thickness technique victimisation the following equation:

SF = SLT/W sin A


  • S = shear strength of the clay layer (usually 9 x 104 N/m3)
  • L = stretch of the slip plane (usually 50 m)
  • T = unit thickness (usually 1m)
  • W = space (usually 500 m2) x thickness (usually 1 m) x unit weight (usually 1.6×104 N/m3)
  • A = 30º, sin A = 0.5 SF = 1.125 (conditionally stable)

Causes of Slope Failure

Here, the different causes of slopes in geography are as follows.

  • Erosion
  • Rainfall
  • Earthquakes
  • Geology
  • External Loading
  • Construction Activities
  • Fast Drawdown

Let’s know about detailed causes of slope failure.

  1. Erosion: Water & Wind Erosion changes the pure mathematics of the slope, leading to slope failure or, a landslide.
  2. Rainfall: Due to Long periods of rain, water enters into existing cracks and saturate, soften, and erode soils.
  3. Earthquakes: Earthquakes induce dynamic forces, particularly dynamic shear forces that scale back the shear strength and stiffness of the soil.
  4. Geology: A slit below a thick deposit of stiff clay will simply be unnoticed in drilling operations, or one could also be careless in assessing borehole logs solely to seek out later that the presence of the slit caused a ruinous failure.
  5. External Loading: Loads placed on the crest of a slope raise the gravitative load and will cause slope failure. A load placed at the toe referred to as a berm can increase the soundness of the slope.
  6. Construction Activities: Construction activities close to the toe of an existing slope will cause failure as a result of lateral resistance is removed. Slope failures are often divided into:-
    • The first case is the excavated slope.
    • The second case is fill slope.
  7. Fast Drawdown: Reservoirs are often subjected to fast drawdown. The lateral force provided by the water is removed, and also the excess pore-water pressure doesn’t have enough time to dissipate.

Slope Failure

A slope failure is a phenomenon that a slope collapses abruptly due to weakened self-retainability of the earth under the influence of a rainfall or an earthquake. Because of sudden collapse of slope, many people fail to escape from it if it occurs near a residential area, thus resulting in a higher rate of fatalities.

Which of the Following Are Types of Slope Failure?

Soil slope failures are generally of four types.

  • Translational Failure.
  • Rotational Failure.
  • Wedge Failure.
  • Compound Failure.

Rotational Slide

This is a slide in which the surface of rupture is curved concavely upward and the slide movement is roughly rotational about an axis that is parallel to the ground surface and transverse across the slide.

Wedge Failure

Wedge failure, also known as block failure or plane failure, generates a failure plane that is inclined. This type of failure occurs when there are fissures, joints, or weak soil layers in slope, or when a slope is made of two different materials.

Rotational Failure

When rotational failure occurs, the failed surface will begin to move outwards and downwards. This occurs when rotation by a slip surface causes the slope surface to curve. The failure can happen in multiple ways, including face, base and toe failure.

Geotechnical Failures

Geotechnical failures usually occur due to a combination of factors such as construction design, geological conditions, construction problems and natural disasters. Although some unforeseen factors may contribute to the geological failure, they are not very significant.

Slope Failure Geology

When the stability conditions are not met, the soil or the rock mass of the slope may experience downward movement which could be either slow or devastatingly rapid. This phenomenon is known as slope failure or landslide.

Difference Between Landslide and Slope Failure

Slope failure is a complex phenomenon that may caused to landslides. Buildings and infrastructure such as transportation facilities and pipelines located within the boundaries of a landslide can be damaged or destroyed.

Slope Failure Examples

For example, pore water pressure in soils decreases shear strength, and saturated soils are more likely to lead to slope failure. Perched water tables, groundwater seeps, and excessive precipitation are some examples of water sources that may lead to slope failure in certain conditions.

Slope Failure Causes

Here, the different causes of slope failure are as follows.

  • Erosion.
  • Rainfall.
  • Earthquakes.
  • Geological Features.
  • External Loading.
  • Construction Activities.
  • Rapid Drawdown.

How to Prevent Slope Failure?

Slope failure can be prevented by providing a berm (horizontal surface between exterior slope) below the toe of the slope which increases the resistance force to movement of the soil and this is the best way to avoid base failure.

Geotechnical Failures

Geotechnical failures usually occur due to a combination of factors such as construction design, geological conditions, construction problems and natural disasters. Although some unforeseen factors may contribute to geological failure, they are not very significant.

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