Abbreviation, Full Forms, and Terminology.
|ASTM||American society for testing materials|
|C/C||Center to center distance|
|Sub-structure||Structure which is below the ground level|
|Super-structure||Structure which is above ground level|
|Elevation||View which we can see when we stand right in front of the structure on any of the sides.|
|Plastering||Cement, sand, and water mix applied on brick wall for smooth surface for painting.|
|Plinth level||Level on which the actual structure stands on|
|Riser||The vertical height of single step|
|Tread||Horizontal portion where we put our foot on which going on steps|
|Footing||The bottom most part of structure. These are categorized as Isolated footing, combined footing, Raft etc.|
|Columns||The vertical members of structure|
|Clear cover||Clear distance maintained from concrete face up to face of the reinforcement steel.|
|Effective depth||Distance from top of the concrete face upto the CG of reinforcement.|
|Singly reinforced section||Section of concrete member with reinforcement at only on tension face.|
|Doubly reinforced section||Section of concrete member with reinforcement on both tension and compression side.|
|Stirrups||Steel bent in closed shape of either Rectangular of circular shape.|
|Cantilever beam||Beam with fixed support on one side and the other end is free.|
|Propped cantilever||Beam with fixed support on one side and other end is with pinned support.|
|Pedestal||Length of the member is less than 3 times in width|
|One way slab||Ratio of length to width is more than 2 its one way slab|
|Two way slab||Ratio of length to width is less than or equal to 2 , its two way slab.|
|Slender column||Length to width ratio of column is more than 12 , then its slender column|
|Plain cement concrete||Cement concrete mix provided on the ground level over which foundations, beams are constructed.|
||The foundation system with Piles i.e cylinder shaped reinforced concrete member.|
|Retaining wall||Wall constructed to retain earth|
|Scaffolding||Temporary structure, where work needs to be carried out at higher elevations.|
1. Cement: Cement is essentially attained by crushing the gravels comprising lime in addition to clay. Cement is the binder that aids in the attachment of cement, sand alongside with water. Nearly of the actual significant categories of cement.
2. Aggregate: Two different type of aggregate are as follows.
1. Fine Aggregate
- Fine aggregate is the material which permits finished 4.75 mm sieve then reserved on 0.075 mm sieve
- Example: Sand
2. Coarse Aggregate
- Coarse aggregate is the material which retains on 4.75 mm sieve.
- Example: Gravel
3. Concrete: Concrete is attained by mingling cement, aggregate in addition water in accordance with a preferred mix. At this point
- water to cement proportion shows a significant part.
- Strength of concrete is inversely proportionate to the water-cement ratio.
- Concrete is characterized by terminology as M-25. Where M is Mix and 25 is the compression strength at the 28 days allowing for
concrete cubes of 15 cm cube.
- Concrete has Two setting types.
- Initial Setting time is of 30 min.
- Final Setting time is of 10 hrs.
- The test for setting time is through by means of Vicats apparatus.
- Concrete setting time can be increased or decreased dependent on environmental circumstances by means of admixtures.
- Admixture for increasing the setting time is named retarder then for decreasing the setting time is named accelerator.
Any Structure Typically Consists of Following
- Main Walls and partition walls.
- Finishes – Plastering and Painting.
- Boundary Wall.
Basic Loads on Structure
- Self-weight of structure i.e slabs, beams, columns, walls, etc.,
- Live Loads due to furniture, equipment, machinery, etc.
- Wind Loads.
- Seismic Loads / Earthquake Loads
- Snow Loads
- Hurricane Loads at some locations
List of Major Indian Codes
|Code for Reinforced concrete||IS: 456|
|Specifications for steel construction||IS: 800|
|Wind Loads on building||IS: 875|
|For Seismic Specifications||IS: 1893|
|For water retaining structures||IS: 3370|
Usefull Tips for Civil Engineers
|Lapping of bars||Diameter of bar is less than 36mm.|
|Circular column||Use Minimum 6 longitudinal bars|
|Thickness of slab||Minimum is 0.125m|
|PH value of water||More than 6 should be used for building purposes.|
|Compressive strength of Bricks||3.5 N /mm2|
|Dead Load of structure||Self-weight of Structure|
|Moisture content||Sand that haves more than 5% must not be used for Concrete mix.|
|DPC||Thickness should not be less than 2.5cm|
|RMC (Ready Mix concrete)||
|Height of floor||3 m or 10 ft|
|Cantilever Beam||One end is fixed support and the other end is free.|
|Simply supported beam||It has Minimum of two supports|
|PCC||It is Used on members when the tensile forces are not acting on it.|
|Weight of first-class clay brick and crushing strength||3.85 Kg and 10.5MN/m2|
|Impermeability of concrete||It is the concrete that resists the entry of water or moisture into it.|
|Curing Period of RCC||28 days|
|Minimum sill level height||44 inches|
|Ties||Transverse reinforcement providing in columns|
|Stirrups||Transverse reinforcement providing in Beams|
|The thermal expansion co-efficient of concrete and steel||12×10−6/°C|
|Number of Bricks necessary for 1m3 of Brick masonary||550 bricks|
|Specific gravity of Cement
Specific gravity of brick
Specific gravity of sand
|Standard Size of Brick||19 cm x 9 cm x 9 cm|
|Slope or Pitch of the stair||25 degrees to 40 degrees|
|Rise in stairs||150mm to 200mm|
|Tread in staircase||250mm to 300mm|
|Hook length||More than 9 * diameter of bar|
|Unit weight of PCC
Unit weight of RCC
Unit weight of STEEL
|Volume of 50 kg cement bag||1.3cft|
|TMT bars||Thermo Mechanically treated bars|
|Length of each bar from factory||12m|
Concrete Basic Knowledge
- The concrete must not be thrown as of a height of more than 1m.
- Cube test is passed out for every 30 m3practise of concrete.
- A head mason must labour 25-30 m3throughtout a day.
- In manufacturing, the rate analysis for the work of labours is considered in Man Hours.
- Theodolite least count is 20 Secs while Compass Least count is 30 mins.
- Cement more than 3 months old cannot be used for construction.
- Calculation of extra water in the concrete mix to rise setting time primes to arrangement the Cracks or honeycomb in hardened
- Vibration in freshly made concrete is completed to eliminate the air foams in a concrete mix.
- The concrete can be raised to an extreme height of 50 musing Concrete Pumps.
- Stirrups in Beams and Ties in Column are on condition that to grip the shear force and to save longitudinal bars in location.
- The Major aim for by means of steel as reinforcement is owing to thermal expansion.
- M20 grade of concrete is normally used in the construction of a slab.
- Floor area engaged by 50 kg of Cement bag is 0.3 m2 and elevation of 0.18 m.
- According to IS 456: 2000, Maximum diameter of bar used in the slab would not surpass 1/8th of the entire thickness of the slab.
Test of Building Materials
Civil engineers need to ensure correct information of various tests of building materials.
1. Soil Test.
- Core Cutter Test.
- Compaction Test of Soil.
- Sand Replacement Test.
- Tri-axial Test.
- Consolidation Test.
2. Concrete Test.
- Slump Test.
- Compression Test.
- Split Tensile Test.
3. Bitumen Test.
- Ductility Test
- Softening Point Test
- Gravity Test.
- Penetration Test.
Concrete Slump Value for Various Concrete Constructions
|Concrete Mixes||Slump range in mm|
|Columns and Retaining walls||75-150 mm|
|Beams and Slabs||50-100 mm|
|Cement Concrete Pavements||20-30 mm|
|Decks of bridge||30-75 mm|
|Huge Mass constructions||25-50 mm|
Grades of Concrete
|Grades of Concrete||Prpostion|
Clear Cover to Main Reinforcement
|Top Raft Foundation||50 mm|
|Bottom/ Sides Raft Foundation||75 mm|
|Strap Beam||50 mm|
|Grade Slab||20 mm|
|Shear Wall||25 mm|
|Flat Slabs||20 mm|
|Retaining Wall||20 – 25 mm|
|Water Retaining Structures||20 – 30 mm|
Unit Weight of Different Materials
|Tension||47 and 60 diameter|
|1 Cent||435.60 ft2|
|1 Meter||3.2808 ft|
|1 M2||10.76 ft2|
|1 Feet||0.3048 m|
|1 KN||100 Kg|
|1 kN||1000 N|
|1 Ton 1000Kg||10,000 N = 10 kN|
|1 kG||9.81 N|
|1 Gallon||3.78 Litres|
|1 Hectare||2.471 acre|
|1 Acre||4046.82 m2|
A superstructure is an upward extension of an existing structure above a baseline. This term is applied to various kinds of physical structures such as buildings, bridges, or ships having the degree of freedom zero (in the terms of theory of machines).
What Is Plinth Level? The plinth is the part of the superstructure between the top of the tie beam at the finished ground level (the top level of the soil surrounding the structure that has been prepared and leveled before construction) and the floor level of the building( the ground floor level inside the building).
Effective Depth (d) – The effective depth (d) of a reinforced concrete floor slab is the distance from the compression face to the center of the tensile steel when an element is subjected to a bending moment.
One Way Slab
One way slab is a slab which is supported by beams on the two opposite sides to carry the load along one direction. The ratio of longer span (l) to shorter span (b) is equal or greater than 2, considered as One way slab because this slab will bend in one direction i.e in the direction along its shorter span.
Slender columns can be defined as columns with small cross sections compared to their lengths. Generally, slender columns have lower strength when compared to short columns, for a constant cross section, increasing the length causes a reduction in the strength.
Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge
As a civil engineer, you need to have the fundamentals of civil engineering to be successful. These include understanding the construction of bridges, dams, and buildings. It is also essential that you learn the basics of surveying and drafting to get involved in land surveying.
Civil Engineering Basic Formulas
1. Triangle Basic Formula
Data of Triangle
- Breadth of Triangle = B.
- Height of Triangle =H.
- Inclined Length of Triangle = C.
- Length of Triangle (L) = L.
Formula of Triangle
- Inclined Length (C) =√ (B2 + H2).
- Perimeter = B + H + C.
- Area of triangle cross-section (A) = 1/2 x B x H.
- Area of Triangle = Perimeter x Length of Triangle.
- Volume of Triangle (V) = Area of Triangle x Length of Triangle.
2. Rectangle Basic Formula
Data of Rectangle
- Length of Rectangle = L.
- Breadth of Rectangle = B.
- Height of Rectangle = H.
Formula of Rectangle
- Perimeter or Peripheral length (P) = L+ B +L + B =2 x (L + B).
- Area of Rectangle Cross-section = L x B.
- Area of Rectangle (A) = Peripheral Length x Height of Rectangle.
- Volume of Rectangle (V) = Area of Rectangle x Height of Rectangle.
3. Square Basic Formula
Data of Square
- Length of Square = L.
- Breadth of Square = L.
- Height of Square = H.
Formula of Square
- Perimeter or Peripheral length of Square (P) = L + L+ L + L = 4L.
- Area of Square Cross-section = L2.
- Area of Square (A) = Perimeter x Height of Square = 4L x H.
- Volume of Square (V) = Area of Square (A) x Height of Square.
Like this post? Share it with your friends!
Suggested Read –
- What Is Stone | Classification of Stones | Application of Stone | Advantages of Stone | Disadvantages of Stone
- What Is Plate Load Test | Method of Plate Load Test | Limitations of Plate Load Test | Advantages & Disadvantages of Plate Load Test
- What Is Tunel | Types of Tunnels | What Are Tunnels Used for | Classification of Tunnel | How Are Tunnels Built |Advantages & Disadvantages of Tunnels
- What Is Frost Wall | Types of Frost Wall | Requirements for Frost Wall Construction | Application of Frost Wall | Advantages of Frost Wall | Uses of Frost Wall
- What Is Isolated Foundation | Types of Isolated Foundations | Shape of Isolated Foundations | Design of Isolated Foundation | Advantage & Disadvantageof Isolated Foundation