Density of Cement Sand and Aggregate
- We know the density which is also known as unit weight, its mass per unit volume of area of that material. The density is denoted by the symbol by RHO (ρ), it defines the degree of compactness of material. Density refers that which material density is high then that material is more denser.
- Density of any materials is refers by kg/m3 or lb/ft3.
- The density is stated as following,
ρ = m/v
Density of Cement:
Cement is a binding particle which is used in construction work to bind the materials, hardens and gains strength quickly.
Cement bind coarse and fine aggregate and create cement mortar and cement concrete. Cement plaster is made of cement and fine aggregate and cement concrete is made of cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate.
The density of the material is measured by the following unit- kg/m3 or lb/ft3.
OPC cement density is 1440 kg/m3.
Density of Sand
The density of sand depends on two different conditions, one is dry condition and other is wet condition.
When the sand is in dry condition then the particles are forced to form narrow disposition and the result of this condition cause more volume of the sand.
But when the sand is in wet condition then water is presented in the sand particles and changes the quantity by volume. In wet condition, the volume of the sand density is increased.
In a different state the average density of sand are:
- Loose sand density: 1442 kg/m3.
- Dry sand density: 1602 kg/m3.
- Packed sand density: 1682 kg/m3.
- Packed sand density: 2082 kg/m3.
Density of Aggregate
Aggregates are that type of substance which are binded by cement paste to create cement concrete. In the concrete aggregates cover most of the volume in concrete and also takes the strength of the concrete.
On the basis of their size the aggregates are categorized by two parts, those are-
- Fine Aggregate.
- Coarse Aggregate.
The aggregates which have less than 4.75mm size are considered as fine aggregate. In the concrete; sand and crushed stone dust are mixed in the fine aggregate.
Sand is collected from rivers, seas, lakes, etc.
That substance which is retained on IS sieve 4.75mm is referred to as coarse aggregate.
The construction type depends on the size of aggregate such as 20cm is used as mass concrete-like dams, 63 mm is used for plain cement concrete, 20 mm aggregates are used in reinforced concrete work.
Bulk Density of Aggregate
- Bulk density is the weight of aggregate needed to fill a unit volume of an container. Bulk density also indicates the grade and shape of aggregate.
- Bulk Density= Weight of aggregate/ Container of unit volume, bulk density is equal to the unit volume.
- The approximately of bulk density of aggregate is varies between 1750 kg/m3 or 75 to 110 lb/ft3
Relative Density of Specific Gravity of Aggregate
Aggregates are generally contains both permeable and impermeable pores, but excluding the pores we say that it is the specific gravity of the aggregates.
Absolute specific gravity: ( oven-dried aggregate weight at 100°C for 24 hours)/ ( waters volume equal to that of aggregate’s solids without considering pore)
Most of the aggregate with kg/m3.
Relative density between 2.4-2.9 which means 2400-2900 kg/m3 (150-181 lb/ft3)
The relative density of an aggregate is based on the dry or saturates surface dry.
Apparent specific gravity= (oven-dried aggregate weight at 100°C for 24 hours)/ ( waters volume equal to that of aggregate’s solids without considering pore)
Gross apparent specific gravity= Dried aggregate weight in saturated dry condition)/ ( water’s weight volume equal to that of aggregate, including all pores)
Density of Building Materials as Per Is 875 Part-I
|Construction Materials||Density in Kg/m3||Density in Kn/m3|
|PCC (Plain Cement Concrete)||1400||24|
|Prestressed Cement Concrete||2400||24|
|Rapid Hardening Cement||1280||12.8|
|RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete)||2500||25|