All About Roller Compacted Concrete | What Is Roller Compacted Concrete | Roller Compacted Concrete Process

All About Roller Compacted Concrete

Roller Compacted Concrete

Roller Compacted Concrete

Roller Compacted Concrete also known as RCC. Roller Compacted Concrete takes its name from the construction method used to build it. It’s placed with conventional or high-density asphalt paving equipment, then compacted with rollers.

Roller-compacted concrete has the same basic ingredient as conventional concrete: cement, water, and aggregates, such as gravel or crushed stone.

But unlike conventional concrete, it’s a drier mix stiff enough to be compacted by vibratory rollers. Typically, RCC is constructed without joints.

It needs neither forms nor finishing, nor does it contain dowels or steel reinforcing. These characteristics make roller-compacted concrete simple, fast, and economical.

What Is Roller Compacted Concrete?

What Is Roller Compacted Concrete

Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) is an ultra-tough, zero-slump concrete with compressive strengths greater than 4,000 psi.

It is placed with asphalt pavers to form a nonreinforced concrete pavement. Roller-compacted concrete successfully and economically combines strength and durability with ease of construction.

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Roller Compacted Concrete Process

Roller Compacted Concrete Process

RCC takes its name from the method used to build it.

Mixing of Roller-compacted concrete

  • A Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) mixing facility, such as a pug mill, tilt drum, or dry batch ready-mixed plant, must have the efficiency to evenly disperse the relatively small amount of water present in the stiff, dry mix which resembles damp gravel.

Transport of Roller-compacted concrete

  • Dump trucks transport the roller-compacted concrete (RCC) mix from the plant to the conventional or high-density asphalt pavers.

Placement of Roller-compacted concrete

  • The mix is placed in layers (or lifts) 4-9 inches thick.

Compaction of Roller-compacted concrete

  • Steel drum vibratory rollers compact the concrete.

Compaction is the most important step in Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) construction because it provides density, strength, smoothness, and surface texture.

The process begins immediately after placement and continues until the pavement meets density requirements. The pavement must be cured to ensure proper strength gain.

Characteristics of Roller-Compacted Concrete

Characteristics of Roller-Compacted Concrete

Compressive Strength

  • Compressive strengths of Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) are usually similar to those of conventional concrete (i.e. 4,000 – 6,000 psi).
  • The dense-graded aggregate structure and effectively low water-to-cementitious materials ratio (w/cm) help roller-compacted concrete achieve high compressive strengths.

Flexural Strength

  • Flexural strength is directly related to the density and compressive strength of the Roller compacted concrete mixture.
  • In properly constructed Roller Compacted Concrete pavements, the aggregates are densely packed and minimize the development of fatigue cracking.
  • The density of the paste and the strength of its bond to the aggregate particles are high due to its low w/cm ratio.
  • As a result, the flexural strength of Roller compacted concrete, depending on the mix design, is generally high ranging from 500 to 1,000 psi.
  • Based on beams and cores obtained from a test section, the relationship between the compressive and flexural strengths of Roller Compacted Concrete appears to be similar to that for conventional concrete and can be represented by the equation below:

fr = C. fc


fr = Flexural Strength (Third-Point Loading), Psi
fc = Compressive Strength, Psi
C = A Constant Between 9 and 11 Depending on the Actual Roller Compacted Concrete Mix

Modulus of Elasticity

  • Modulus of elasticity represents a material’s propensity to undergo reversible elastic deformation in response to stress.
  • Limited tests on Roller Compacted Concrete cores obtained from a full-scale test section indicate that Roller Compacted Concrete modulus of elasticity values are similar to or slightly higher than those of conventional concrete when the mixes have similar cement contents.
  • The modulus of elasticity expresses the ratio between the applied stress and strain, as shown below:

E = σ / ε


E = Modulus of Elasticity (psi)
σ = Stress (psi)
ε = Strain (in./in.)

Freeze-Thaw Durability

  • Two sets of roller-compacted concrete (RCC) samples cured for 28 days were subjected to freeze-thaw (F-T) cycles and immersion in laboratory conditions.
  • The compressive strength of RCC immersed in KAc solution decreases by 18.8% and 32.8% after 6 and 12 months.

Application of Roller Compacted Concrete

Application of Roller Compacted Concrete

  • Today, Roller-compacted concrete is used when strength, speed of construction, durability, and economy are primary needs.
  • It is a type of concrete pavement that is well suited for heavy industrial applications, as well as low-speed roads and arterial roads.
  • The roller-compacted concrete has been used to construct, repair, or maintenance of the following structures:

List of Application Roller Compacted Concrete

Sr.No. Application Detail
1 Airfield maintenance areas.
2 Airports.
3 Distribution centres.
4 Industrial and military facilities.
5 Industrial slab floors.
6 Manufacturing facilities, heavy haul roads, scrap yards.
7 Multi-modal yards.
8 New dam construction.
9 Over-topping protection.
10 Parking and storage facilities.
11 Ports.
12 Power plants and other industrial facilities.
13 Rehabilitation of existing dams.
14 Reservoir liners.
15 Storage.
16 Streets & highways, intersections, shoulders, turn lanes, and bike paths.
17 Sub-base of roads and airfield pavements.

Roller Compacted Concrete Cost

Roller Compacted Concrete Cost

  • The process of Roller compacted concrete itself will reduce your construction costs as there is no need to use forms or rebars, and the application process is very easy and can be done quickly.
  • On average, the cost per yard of Roller compacted concrete is about $75 per cubic yard while the cost of Hot-mix Asphalt pavement is about $90 per cubic yard, so you will already notice there are some savings by using Roller compacted concrete.
  • Not only that, there are certain products used to improve the Roller compacted concrete surface and applied to the Roller compacted concrete mix such as Roller compacted concrete Surface Pro which improves surface appearance and durability while ACEiT admixture can improve workability.

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Benefits of Roller Compacted Concrete

Benefits of Roller Compacted Concrete

The high strength of Roller compacted concrete pavements eliminates common and costly problems traditionally associated with asphalt pavements.

Some of the benefits of using Roller Compacted Concrete are:

  • Roller-compacted concrete provides great strength
  • Roller compacted concrete no need to use forms
  • In this roller-compacted concrete rebar is not required
  • Roller-compacted concrete is high volume placement
  • It can be used as a roadway after only 24 hours of being placed
  • Will not be affected by oil spills, fuels, and/or hydraulic fluids
  • Span soft localized subgrades
  • Can withstand high temperatures

Advantages of Roller-Compacted Concrete

Advantages of Roller-Compacted Concrete

  • This roller-compacted concrete is cost-effective and has fast construction.
  • Roller-compacted concrete requires minimal maintenance.
  • Roller compacted concrete plain surface and also no rutting, no potholes.
  • The cost of formwork is minimized or eliminated due to the layer placement method.
  • Roller-compacted concrete does not deform under heavy concentric loads.
  • Also, reduces cement consumption as leaner concrete mixtures may be used.
  • There is no concern about the release of high heat during the drying of concrete.
  • Roller-compacted concrete resistance to shoving and pushing.
  • Transportation costs, placement, and compaction of concrete are minimized, as a result, the concrete will be handled by dump vehicles; spread by bulldozers, and compressed by vibration rollers.
  • Shorter haul distance.
  • Rapid placement
  • Small construction crew

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Roller Compacted Concrete Disadvantages

Roller Compacted Concrete Disadvantages

  • Smoothness is difficult to achieve.
  • Reveling of Cracks.
  • Skill person required.
  • In roller compacted concrete dams, the drainage gallery often increases construction time and increases costs because the earth fills the method being used does not easily accommodate such a construction.
  • Situations, where Roller Compacted Concrete may not be appropriate, are when aggregate material is not reasonably available, the foundation rock is of poor quality or not close to the surface, or where foundation conditions can lead to excessive differential settlement.
  • Dams constructed or repaired with roller-compacted concrete may suffer from water seepage. That is why water stoppage layers shall be considered.

Roller-Compacted Concrete Mix Design

Mix design proportioning methods for Roller Compacted Concrete RCC: Materials Used in RCC mix design.

Roller Compacted Concrete Vs Asphalt

RCC is faster than asphalt because it often requires just one lift where two might otherwise have been required. As a result, RCC can minimize downtime, something of real interest when otherwise busy parking lots and streets are involved. In some cases, roads can be reopened in a matter of hours rather than days.

What Is Compaction of Concrete?

INTRODUCTION. Compaction is the process which expels entrapped air from freshly placed concrete and packs the aggregate particles together so as to increase the density of concrete. It increases significantly the ultimate strength of concrete and enhances the bond with reinforcement.

What Is Green Concrete?

Green concrete is a form of eco-friendly concrete that is manufactured using waste or residual materials from different industries, and requires less amount of energy for production. Compared to traditional concrete, it produces less carbon dioxide, and is considered cheap and more durable.

What Does Green Concrete Mean?

Concrete which is made from concrete wastes that are eco-friendly are called as “Green concrete”. Concrete that uses less in energy in its production and produces less carbon dioxide than normal concrete is green concrete.

What Is Green Concrete Made of?

Green concrete is made of new raw materials — namely fly ash, recycled concrete aggregates and aluminium can fibres. Fly ash is a waste product from coal power plants and is commonly disposed of in ponds and sent to landfills.

What Is the Strongest Concrete?

Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a cementitious, concrete material that has a minimum specified compressive strength of 17,000 pounds per square inch (120 MPa) with specified durability, tensile ductility and toughness requirements; fibers are generally included in the mixture to achieve specified requirements …

What Is Difference Between Cement and Concrete?

What is the difference between cement and concrete? Although the terms cement and concrete often are used interchangeably, cement is actually an ingredient of concrete. Concrete is a mixture of aggregates and paste. The aggregates are sand and gravel or crushed stone; the paste is water and portland cement.

What Is the Difference Between Mortar and Concrete?

Mortar is composed of cement, fine sands, and lime; it is used as a binding material when building with brick, block, and stone. Concrete is a very strong structural building material composed of cement, sand, and larger aggregate (gravel).

What Is Lightweight Concrete Made Of?

Lightweight concrete is a mixture made with lightweight coarse aggregates such as shale, clay, or slate, which give it its characteristic low density. Structural lightweight concrete has an in-place density of 90 to 115 lb/ft³, whereas the density of regular weight concrete ranges from 140 to 150 lb/ft³.

What Is Ccrcc?

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma, or ccRCC, is a type of kidney cancer. The kidneys are located on either side of the spine towards the lower back. The kidneys work by cleaning out waste products in the blood. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma is also called conventional renal cell carcinoma.

How Does a Compaction Roller Work?

By applying combined static and dynamic forces to increase the load-bearing capacity of the surface, a vibratory roller is one of the types of a compactor. It has a drum to densify soil, asphalt, or other materials. The process of densification is carried by transferring vibrations to the surface.

How Many Types of Rollers Are There?

It is quite a recent technological innovation in compaction.

  • Grid Roller Compactor.
  • Rubber Tired Rollers or Pneumatic Roller Compactor.
  • Smooth wheeled Rollers.

Advantages of Roller Compacted Concrete

Some of the benefits of using Roller Compacted Concrete are:

  • No need to use forms.
  • Rebar is not required.
  • It provides great strength.
  • High Volume Placement.
  • It can be used as a roadway after only 24 hours of being placed.
  • Span soft localized subgrades.
  • Will not be affected by oil spills, fuels and/or hydraulic fluids.

What Is Rcc Work in Construction?

Reinforced concrete (RC), also called reinforced cement concrete (RCC) and ferroconcrete, is a composite material in which concrete’s relatively low tensile strength and ductility are compensated for by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility.

What Type of Flooring Is Best Over Concrete?

To sum it up – carpet, engineered hardwood, laminate, or vinyl flooring are all great options to install over a concrete substrate that can last for years when properly maintained.

What Type of Concrete Is Best for a Driveway?

Portland Cement: Portland cement is a material commonly used to create concrete. It acts much like a strong glue, providing a reliable bond that makes it a popular choice for laying driveways and pathways.

What Type of Flooring Is Best for Concrete Slab?

Best Flooring for Concrete Slab Foundation

  • Engineered Wood. Natural hardwood flooring offers undeniable beauty and durability.
  • Vinyl. As a longstanding choice for kitchens and bathrooms, vinyl has a reputation for extreme water resistance.
  • Laminate.
  • Carpet.
  • Tile.

Which Concrete Is Best for Slab?

Different types of cement are used to construct concrete slabs, but the best would be Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC). People use PPC to produce concrete for homes, residential areas, and schools. PPC is made of cement clinker (77%), gypsum (3-5%), and fly-ash (20%).

What Does Fly Ash Do in Concrete?

Fly ash use in concrete improves the workability of plastic concrete, and the strength and durability of hardened concrete. Fly ash use is also cost effective. When fly ash is added to concrete, the amount of portland cement may be reduced.

Roller Compacted Concrete Disadvantages

Smoothness is difficult to achieve. Revelling of Cracks. Skill person required. In roller compacted concrete dams, the drainage gallery often increases construction time and increases costs because the earth fill method being used does not easily accommodate such a construction.

What Is the Cost of Rcc Construction?

The cost of brick without RCC can range between Rs 800 per sq ft to Rs 900 per sq ft approximately and the cost of brick with RCC can range between 900 per sq ft to Rs 1,000 per sq ft approximately.

Roller Compacted Concrete Cost

As an average, the cost per yard of RCC is about $75 per cubic yard while the cost of Hot-mix Asphalt pavement is about $90 per cubic yard, so you will already notice there are some savings by using RCC.

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