What Is Sewerage | What Is Storm Drain | Household Drain Systems | House Drainage Parts and Components | Types of Sewer Pipes | Sanitary Pipework

All About Sewerage

Table of Contents

What Is Sewerage?

What Is Sewerage

A sewerage system, or waste product assortment system, maybe a mesh of pipes, pumping stations, and appurtenances that convey waste stuff from its points of origin to a degree of treatment and disposal.

What Is a Storm Drain?

What Is Storm Drain

A storm drain, storm sewer, surface water drain/sewer, or storm-water drain is an infrastructure designed to empty excess rain and well water from acidulated surfaces like made-up streets, car parks, parking tons, footpaths, sidewalks, and roofs.

What Is the Difference Between Sanitary and Storm Sewers?

What Is Difference Between Sanitary and Storm Sewers

A Sanitary sewer is actually a mesh of underground pipes that carries sewage (waste) from bathrooms, basins, sinks & kitchens where it is filtered, treated, and discharged.

The storm sewer is actually a system constructed to transport rainwater and other drainage wastes. It is not designed to carry sewage or accept perilous wastes.

Also Read: What Is a Low E Glass | Types of Low E Glass | Advantages & Disadvantages of Low E Glass

When Sewer and Storm Water Drains Are Combined into a Single System?

When Sewer and Storm Water Drains Are Combined to a Single System

The combined system provides at most one mesh of pipes, mains, and outlet sewers for a whole lot of waste matter and runoff.

Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs)

  • Systems that carry a blend of a whole lot of domestic waste stuff and storm waste material. Hence, known as combined sewers.
  • Combined sewers generally include sizeable-diameter pipes or tunnels. These combined sewers are a dreadfully hard fount of pollution.

Household Drain Systems

Household Drain Systems

The following fittings are normally utilized in buildings

  1. Wash Basin
  2. Sink While
  3. Bath Tub
  4. Water Closets
  5. Urinals
  6. Flushing Cisterns

1. Wash Basin

Wash Basin

Wash Basin is sometimes created of pottery or ceramic ware material. It’s elliptical in form as a bowl, with an associate degree overflow slot at the very best.

2. Sink While

Sink While

Sink While wash basin used for laundry face, hands, etc. This category of sink is so utilized in rooms or science labs workplace.

3. BathTub


Bath Tub It’s created of iron or steel coated with terracotta or plastic stuff.

4. Water Closets

Water Closets

Water Closets Water closet is designed to receive and discharge human excretory by-products.

5. Urinals


Urinals are of 2 varieties predominantly

  • Bowl sort
  • Slab or Stall sort Urinals

6. Flushing Cisterns

Flushing Cisterns

Flushing Cisterns Flushing Cistern used for flushing out water closets and urinals.

Also Read:  What Is a Low E Glass | Types of Low E Glass | Advantages & Disadvantages of Low E Glass

House Drainage Parts and Components?

House Drainage Parts and Components

Fixture Drains the visible part of a sink or shower drain that everybody is intimate with. U-bends or P-traps immediately after the fixture drains there is a p-trap, which is habitually a curved pipe. It holds standing water and averts sewage gasses from rising.

Toilet traps are sometimes built-in, the toilet trap is conventionally like the p-trap in shape and performance it blocks sewage gasses. Clothes washer Standpipe while most of your washer pipes may be hidden, the standpipe is often left exposed.

Branch Drain lines usually run horizontally and connect fixture drain traps to main drain lines. They are often concealed at the rear of the walls.

The main drain line is concealed under your foundation slab or basement floor; the central drain line is connected to the municipal sewer line and carries every single milli-liter of your home’s wastewater thereto.

The pipe shut-off stop valve is usually in the vicinity of your water meter and must fend off flooding or water damage.

Types of Sewer Pipes

Types of Sewer Pipes

Types of Sewer Pipes are as follows.

  1. Orangeburg Sewer Pipes
  2. Plastic Pvc and Abs Sewer Pipes
  3. Cast Iron & Forged Iron Sewer Pipes
  4. Clay Tile Sewer Pipes
  5. Bituminized Fiber Sewer Pipes

1. Orangeburg Sewer Pipes

Orangeburg Sewer Pipes

In older properties designed before the 1950s, you may realize tobacco pipe, iron pipe, or a fiber passage pipe known as Orangeburg.

2. Plastic PVC and ABS Sewer Pipes

Plastic PVC and ABS Sewer Pipes

Plastic sewer pipe is on the market in each ABS and PVC. Plastic sewer pipe is typically lightweight, effortless to chop in pieces, affordable, and accessible at ease.

3. Cast Iron & Forged Iron Sewer Pipes

Cast Iron & Forged Iron Sewer Pipes

One of the uncomplicated things regarding forged iron pipe is that it’s improbably robust. Cast-iron sewer pipe is straightforward and serious and it is a hefty job to chop it. The Cast iron pipe is non-flammable.

Forged iron sewer pipes give a decent water seal (eximious guard against roots) and are able to face up to a drastic earthquake.

4. Clay Tile Sewer Pipes

Clay Tile Sewer Pipes

One good thing about tobacco pipe over plastic pipe is that it’s immobile, creating it extremely unsusceptible to chemical degradation.

5. Bituminized Fiber Sewer Pipes

Bituminized Fiber Sewer Pipes

The Orangeburg pipe may be a bituminized fiber pipe made of veneers of pulp and pitch, ironed along. These pipes were widespread owing to the fact that their lightweight style and simple use.

Sanitary Pipework

Sanitary Pipework

Pipes In a house system, a pipe could have the subsequent designations, relying upon the performance it supplies:

1. Drainpipe


A pipe through that human excretion flows. A pipe that carries solely the liquid waste. It doesn’t carry human excretion.

2. Vent Pipe

Vent Pipe

A pipe is provided for the aim of ventilation of the system.

3. Rain Pipe

Rain Pipe

A pipe that generally carries solely the rainwater.

4. Anti-siphonage Pipe

Anti-siphonage Pipe

A pipe is put in within the house evacuation to preserve the water seal of traps.

Traps A lure could be a depressed or bent fitting that maintains a water seal and passage of foul gases.

5. Classification of Traps

Classification of Traps

  1. Classification According to Form
  2. Classification According to Use

Classification According to Form


This resembles the silhouette of the letter P, during which the legs area unit at right angles to every different.


Also referred to as a half-S-trap. This resembles the silhouette of a letter alphabetic character, during which 2 legs meet at an associate degree angle excluding a right angle.


This resembles the silhouette of the letter S, during which each leg area unit is collateral to every different, discharging within the identical direction.

Classification According to Use

Nahni or Floor Lure

It is maneuvered for floors, kitchens, and bathrooms. It is concocted from forged iron, with gravity at prime to exclude Brobdingnagian-size solid matter.

Gully Lure

It unhitches the sullage drain (collected from baths, kitchens, etc.) from most systems. It is concocted from stoneware / forged iron.

Intercepting Lure

It is an exceptional sort of lure provided at the junction of the house drain with the public sewer. It fends off the entry of foul gases from the public main drain into the house drains.

How Do Sewage Treatment Plants Work?

How Do Sewage Treatment Plants Work

In the Primary Chamber, the water sits till grease, oil and scum have floated at their very best and solids have settled on the substratum of the tank.

In the Secondary Chamber is wherever sewerage treatment plants dissent from septic tanks.

Advantages of a Sewerage Treatment Plant

  1. Reliable and dubious to come up against issues
  2. Can be put in even on burdensome sites
  3. Cost-effective over time, with solely installation, power, and maintenance.

Disadvantages of a Sewerage Treatment Plant

  1. The plant wants an incessant offer of electricity to run
  2. Will need skilled perpetuation annually.
  3. Design and installation of the system have to be undertaken professionally.

Also Read: What Is Soundness of Cement Test

Sewer Waste Process

Sewer Waste Process

Sewer waste is processed through the diffusion of systems within the subsequent steps:

  • Biodegradable pollution is tense from buildings and houses through pipes that transfer the waste to filters that separate massive objects from the biodegradable pollution water.
  • Next, mud, sand, and smaller materials can settle in a grit chamber.
  • Bio-degradable pollution then flows into tanks wherever solids within the effluent can separate into sludge and water.
  • The bio-degradable pollution water then transfers to a treatment plant in presence of microorganisms.
  • The remaining water is disinfected and filtered into native lakes or oceans.
  • The remaining sludge is processed in sludge digesters that kill microorganisms.

Types of Sewers

Types of Sewers

The most ordinary sewers include:

1. Combined Sewers

Combined Sewers

Combined sewers ordinarily carry domestic, industrial, and storm sewage.

2. Sanitary Sewers

Sanitary Sewers

Sanitary sewers ordinarily deliver sewage wastewater to treatment plants.

3. Storm Flow Sewers

Storm Flow Sewers

Storm flow sewers ordinarily carry rainwater to drains and detention tanks.

What Are the Different Varieties of Sewage?

What Are the Different Varieties of Sewage

There are two types of sewage as follows.

1. Treated Sewage

Treated Sewage

The stages of sewage treatment include pre-treatment, primary, secondary, and tertiary sewage treatment, and the use of UV Light.

2. Untreated Sewage

Untreated Sewage

Untreated sewage refers to wastewater that contains harmful germs and bacteria and which has not yet been filtered in a sewage treatment plant.


Household Drain Systems

The lowest part of a home drainage system, this pipe receives the discharge from soil, waste, and other drainage pipes, and then carries such discharge to the house sewer.

The house drain ends just outside the front or foundation wall of the building and operates by gravity.

Type of Sewer Pipe

  • Pvc and ABS Sewer Pipe
  • Cast-Iron Sewer Pipe
  • Vitrified Clay Sewer Pipe
  • Orangeburg Sewer Pipe

How Does a Sewer System Work?

Sewage is pumped from buildings and homes through pipes that transfer the waste to filters that separate large objects from the sewage water.

Large items can include plastic, logs, and other materials. Sewage then flows into tanks where solids in the wastewater will separate into sludge and water.

Types of Sewage

There are two types of sewage:

  • Treated Sewage,
  • Untreated Sewage.

1. Treated Sewage:

Treated sewage refers to wastewater or sewage which has passed through a treatment plant. Sewage goes through several stages in the treatment process ensuring that all harmful bacteria, pollutants, and contaminants are eliminated.

2. Untreated Sewage.

Untreated sewage refers to wastewater that contains harmful waterborne pathogens and bacteria and which has not yet gone through a sewage treatment plant. Raw sewage originates from broken toilet pipes, overspills, industry leakages, and heavy storms.

Sewage Vs Sewerage

Sewage is the waste matter carried off by sewer drains and pipes. Sewerage refers to the physical facilities (e.g., pipes, lift stations, and treatment and disposal facilities) through which sewage flows.

How Does a Sewage Treatment Plant Work?

Using internal mechanisms, a sewage treatment plant works by breaking down solid waste to produce a cleaner, more environmentally friendly effluent. In the chamber, a pump airs the waste and encourages friendly bacteria to condense the organic matter. This breaks down and purifies the result.

Types of Sewer Systems for Homes

There are three types of modern sewer systems: Sanitary sewers (also called foul sewers), storm sewers (also called surface water sewers), and combined sewers.

Difference Between Sewage and Sewerage

(a) What is the difference between sewage and sewerage? Sewage is the waste matter carried off by sewer drains and pipes. Sewerage refers to the physical facilities (e.g., pipes, lift stations, and treatment and disposal facilities) through which sewage flows.

Sewerage Charges Meaning

Sewer consumption charge – Consumption is based on how much sewage is leaving your home. The average residential sewer usage is capped at 36,000 gallons. Money collected through this charge pays for transporting and treating the sanitary sewer flow.

Sewerage Synonym

Synonyms & Near Synonyms for sewage. crud, slop, swill, wash.

Storm Drain Vs Sewer

A: The sanitary sewer system collects water from inside our homes and businesses and carries it to a treatment plant where the wastewater is cleaned before being released into the Delta. Storm drains are located along streets and in parking lots and flow directly to the Delta without treatment.

Storm Sewer Vs Sanitary Sewer

What is the difference between sanitary sewers and storm drains? Sanitary sewers collect and convey sewage to a treatment plant where the sewage can be treated. Storm drains transport rain water and irrigation runoff to streams, bays, and rivers with little or no treatment.

Types of Storm Water Drainage System

Stormwater Drainage Systems

  • Slot Drains. Slot drains are a recent innovation in drainage technology.
  • Open Storm Drains. Open storm drains are drains that usually run parallel to a nearby road or parallel to the edge of a property.
  • Closed Storm Drain.
  • French Drain.
  • Permeable Pavement.

Where Do Storm Drains Go?

Where does the storm drain go? Water that flows down driveways and streets into a gutter goes into a storm drain which flows directly to a creek and then to the South San Francisco Bay.

Storm Sewer and Sanitary Sewer Separation

Sewer separation is the practice of separating the combined, single pipe system into separate sewers for sanitary and storm water flows. In a separate system, storm water is conveyed to a storm water outfall for discharge directly into the receiving water.

Are Storm Drains Connected to Sewers?

Storm water shall not be drained into sewers intended for sanitary drainage.

Combined Vs Separate Sewer Systems

Traditionally, in urban drainage two types of sewer systems are adopted: separate and combined sewers. The former convey dry and wet weather flow separately into two different networks, while the latter convey dry and wet weather flow together.

House Drainage System Clogged

A clogged main drain is a very serious problem that should be considered a plumbing emergency. It is usually caused by broken pipes in your line, debris such as feminine products, baby wipes or toilet paper that clog the line, or tree roots that grow into the sewer line in search of water, and have ruptured the line.

Slow Drains in House

Sinks draining slow is a problem that is commonly caused by clogs. If the problem is localized to one sink or drain, the clog is likely within that fixture’s drain lines. For sinks draining slow across the entire home, a clog could exist within your home’s main sewer lines.

Types of Drainage Systems for Houses

There are four main types of residential drainage systems. These include surface, subsurface, slope, downspout and gutter systems.

Slope Drainage System

Slope drainage systems are built to allow water to flow from a structure in a downward direction. It is done with the aid of pipes that move down through the slope. Since the installed pipe is anchored to an incline, it guides the water through the pipe to get it swiftly away from the structure.

Types of Sewer Pipes

There are several different pipe materials available for wastewater collection systems, each with a unique characteristic used in different conditions. The four different pipe materials described in this fact sheet are ductile iron, concrete, plastic, and vitrified clay.

What Type of Pipe for Sewer Line?

PVC and ABS – There are two types of plastic pipes that are used underground for sewer lines. PVC and ABS are quite similar, though they have different codes and use different adhesives. They also differ by color – PVC is white and ABS is black. In general, PVC is more flexible and ABS is stronger.

Types of Underground Drainage Pipes

  • PVC. Polyvinyl Chloride pipes are the most commonly used pipes for any drainage project.
  • Concrete.
  • Polyethylene.
  • Smooth Wall.
  • Single Wall Corrugated.
  • Dual Wall Corrugated.

What Size Pipe for Main Sewer Line?

Depending on your local plumbing codes, the main sewer line for residential homes is usually 4 inches in diameter. You may think if the pipe were larger, more waste could travel without getting clogged. But that’s not true.

What Type of Pvc Pipe Is Used for Sewer Lines?

Schedule 40 is ideal for above-ground vent lines and sewer lines in homes and has a thinner wall thickness than schedules 120 and 80. Schedule 120 comes with the thickest pipe wall.

How Do Sewage Treatment Plants Work?

The wastewater enters an aeration tank, where it is mixed with sludge. Air is then pumped into the aeration tank to facilitate the growth of bacteria and other small organisms within the sludge. The bacteria and other microorganisms break down the organic matter in the water into harmless byproducts.

Wastewater Treatment System

Onsite (or decentralized) wastewater treatment systems are used to treat wastewater from a home or business and return treated wastewater back into the receiving environment. They are typically referred to as septic systems, because most involve a septic tank for partial treatment.

4 Stages of Wastewater Treatment

  • Preliminary treatment. Preliminary or pretreatment, is the first stage of wastewater treatment and is used to prepare water for purification during the following phases.
  • Primary treatment.
  • Secondary treatment.
  • Tertiary treatment.

Sewage System

Sewerage (or sewage system) is the infrastructure that conveys sewage or surface runoff (stormwater, meltwater, rainwater) using sewers. It encompasses components such as receiving drains, manholes, pumping stations, storm overflows, and screening chambers of the combined sewer or sanitary sewer.

Types of Sewers

The three types of sewers are sanitary sewers, storm sewers, and combined sewers. All three of these sewer systems play important roles in ensuring that the waste we produce is transported and treated properly.

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