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Introduction of Stepped Footing
The main function of the foundation is to give support to the Structures and transmit the superimposed load of the Structures in the underneath strata. Generally, it is recommended to construct Foundation on the flat or smooth surface of the ground. There are some sites where the flat surface is not available.
In some cases, we have to construct a foundation on the slope sites. It is very essential proper design and planning should be done for the construction of the foundation on a slope. In this article, you will get to know how to build a foundation on the slope by using stepped Foundation
What Is Stepped Foundation?
The stepped footing is generally constructed in the olden days but now they are outdated. The stepped footing is also known as a Stepped foundation.
The stepped footing is a simple type of isolated footing which is provided over soil having less bearing capacity. Because of low soil capacity load need to be transferred on the larger area.
Stepped footing are stepped upon one another. There are generally three to four cross-sections which are stacked on each other in order to form the steps.
The main purpose of the Stepped Foundation is to avoid the direct contact of the column with the underneath soil to prevent the corrosive effect and effectively transfer the load into the ground.
Purpose of Providing Stepped Foundation to the Structures
Here, the stepped footing to the structures are as follows.
- The main function of the foundation is to transmit the load of the structure in the underground strata.
- The foundation helps to provide a level surface for the construction of the Buildings.
- It will help to prevent any lateral movements in the structure.
- To provide stability against sliding and overturning.
How to Build a Stepped Foundation on the Slope?
The foundation of the structure is one of the most important parts of the structure and it should be constructed perfectly with proper design and planning of the foundation.
One of the main function of the foundation is to transfer the total load from the superstructure to the underneath strata. Generally, we use simple types of isolated or individual footing in the construction of structures in a level ground.
It is very difficult and Challenging to construct a stable foundation on a sloping site. There are many sites in the hilly area where we have to build a foundation on a Slope. It is one of the Challenging parts for Engineer that how to build a foundation on a slope.
The most appropriate types of foundation which is used in the Construction of foundation where the natural slope is not available is Stepped Foundation. Stepped Foundation is also popularly known as stepped footing. Stepped footing it is one of the most Economical solutions to build Foundation on the slope areas.
The Construction of the Stepped footing basically consists of the form of a series of the concrete steps which are built in the horizontal direction on the slope surface of the ground. This types of Stepped foundation is generally used to reduce the cost of excavation required to construct the foundation on the slope.
The use of Stepped footings depends on the different factors like site conditions, finished grade elevations, finished wall slope, and various steel bar placement and construction issues.
House Foundation on Slope
The ground elevation is not always smooth and flat. During the construction of the house foundation on slope structures, there are some sites where the sloped surface of the ground is available. It is very difficult to construct house Foundation on a slope.
It is not possible to construct a house foundation on the slope by using simple Foundation. The construction of structures on the slope required filling material to uplift the level over the site to make it flat and smooth.
It is very expensive and time-consuming to level the surface by filling material and foundation walling on the sloping. The Stepped footing it is a widely used type of footing in the Construction of House Foundation on the slope.
During the construction of the foundation on the slope, it is very important that right decision should be taken by proper planning that whether the ground floor should be located at the highest level or at the ground level.
In the construction of the stepped footing, the width is constructed by the series of steps in the proportion of one unit of horizontal dimension to two units of the vertical direction. The foundation on the sloping sides can be constructed by cutting the portion of the foundation trench in the number of steps.
The step should not be more than the depth of the concrete bed and every step should be constructed on a different depth. The lap of concrete at its top should not less than the vertical thickness of the concrete.