Table of Contents
Concrete Vs Cement
Definition of Cement and Concrete
Definition of Cement
Cement is the greatest significant building material and is a binding agent who sets in addition to hardening to keep building components, including such as stones, bricks, tiles, respectively.
Cement usually mentions appropriating finely powdered matter primarily prepared up of limestone (calcium), sand or clay (silicon), bauxite (aluminum) in addition to iron ore, as well as might comprise shells, chalk, marl, shale, clay, blast furnace slag, slate.
The raw constituents are treated in cement manufacturing plants then heated to form a rock-hard substance that is formerly crushed into fine dust to be sold.
Cement mixed with water reasons a chemical reaction as well as forms a cement that sets and toughens to bind separate assemblies of building materials.
Definition of Concrete
Concrete is an artificial combined material that is produced by mingling binding material (cement or lime) alongside the aggregate (sand, gravel, stone, brick chips.), water, admixtures, respectively, to precise extents. The strength and quality are reliant on the mixing quantities.
Composition of Cement and Concrete
Composition of Cement
Portland cement is prepared up of four chiefs completes:
- tricalcium silicate (3CaO · SiO2), C3S
- dicalcium silicate (2CaO · SiO2), C2S
- tricalcium aluminate (3CaO · Al2O3), C3A
- tetra-calcium aluminoferrite (4CaO · Al2O3Fe2O3), C4AF
Lesser quantities of uncombined lime, in addition, magnesia as well are existing, alongside alkalies and slight extents of additional essentials.
- Lime (calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide) 60-65%,
- Silica (silicon dioxide) 17-25%,
- Alumina (aluminium oxide) 3-8%,
- Magnesia (magnesium oxide) 1-3%,
- Iron oxide 0.5-6%,
- Calcium sulphate 0.1-0.5%,
- Sulfur trioxide 1-3%, Alkaline 0-1%.
suchelements are usuallyremoved from limestone, clay, marl, shale, chalk, sand, bauxite, and iron ore.
Composition of Concrete
The method for creating concrete from its constituents can be obtainable in the resulting calculation:
Concrete = Binding Material + Fine aggregate+ Coarse Aggregate + Water + Admixture.
Here are four basic constituents contained by the concrete mix:
- Binding materials like cement or lime
- Aggregates or Inert Materials
- Fine aggregate (sand)
- Coarse aggregate (stone chips, brick chips)
- Admixture (Pozzolana)
A short-term explanation of the concrete constituents is specified under.
1. Binding Materials
Binding material is the chief constituent of a concrete mix. Cement is the utmost frequently used binding material. Lime might as well be used.
Once water is mixed with the cement, sticky stuff is produced, which coverings the aggregates inside the mix. The paste hardens, binds the aggregates, and forms a stone-like substance.
Sand is a fine combination.
Gravel or crushed stone is the rough mixture in maximum combinations.
Water is essential to with substances respond with the cement (hydration) in addition to source workability with the concrete.
The amount of water inside the combine in pounds associated with the amount of cement is called the water/cement quantitative relation. The lower the w/c quantitative relation, the stronger the concrete.The Higher the strength, the lesser the permeability.
Types of Cement and Concrete
Types of Cement
- Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)
- Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC)
- Rapid Hardening Cement
- Extra Rapid Hardening Cement
- Low Heat Cement
- Sulfates Resisting Cement
- Quick Setting Cement
- Blast Furnace Slag Cement
- High Alumina Cement
- White Cement
Types of Concrete
- Regular Concrete
- High-strength Concrete
- Stamped Concrete
- High-Performance Concrete
- Self-consolidating Concretes
- Vacuum Concrete
- Roller-Compacted concrete
- Glass Concrete
- Asphalt Concrete
- Rapid Strength Concrete
- Polymer Concrete
- Light-Transmitting Concrete
Properties of Cement and Concrete
Properties of Cement
- It gives strength to the masonry.
- It is an excellent binding material.
- It is easily workable.
- It offers good resistance to moisture.
- It possesses good plasticity.
- It stiffens or hardens early.
- A thin paste of cement with water must texture sticky amongst the fingers.
- The compressive strength at the finish of 3 days must not be fewer than 11.5 N/mm2 as well as at the finish of 7 days must not be a smaller amount than 17.5 N/mm2.
- The tensile strength at the finish of 3 days must not be less than 2 N/mm2. In addition to that, the finish of 7 days must not be less than 2.50 N/mm2.
- The proportion of fraction of alumina to iron oxide must not be less than 0.66.
- The proportion of percentage of lime to alumina, iron oxide, and silica, recognized as Lime Saturation Factor (LSF), must not be less than 0.66 and must not be more than 1.02.
- Entire loss on ignition would not be additional than 4 percent.
- The entire sulphur content must not be extra than 2.75 percent.
- Mass of insoluble remainder must not be extra than 1.50 percent.
- Mass of magnesia must not surpass 5 percent.
Properties of Concrete
- The concrete holds the resulting properties:
- The thermal expansion of concrete is around 0.4 mm each meter.
- Concrete contracts as it dry out and expands over on dampening, and the amount of measure be determined by upon the modulus of elasticity of the cement.
- It fixes quickly with steel. In addition to it is weak in tension, the steel reinforcement is located in concrete at appropriate places.
- It has a tendency to be absorbent.
- It has a high degree of abrasion resistance.
- It has a high degree of electrical resistance.
- It is further economical than steel.
- It has great compressive strength.
- It is permitted from corrosion so as it has no special effects of atmospheric agents on it.
- It toughens with period and procedure of hardening is stay to a long time and afterward a long time, it reaches the adequate strength.
- It must be recollected that together with other constituents, the concrete originates to the location in the procedures of raw ingredients only. Its final strength and excellence are determined by completely local circumstances and the individual conduct it. Though, the constituents of which concrete is composed may be exposed to unending conditions.
Uses of Cement and Concrete
Uses of Cement
- Cement mortar for brickwork work, coat, directing, respectively.
- Cement for placing floors, roofs in addition to creating lintels, beams, climate sheds, stairs, pillars, respectively.
- Building of essential-business constructions such as bridges, culverts, dams, tunnels, storage reservoirs, lighthouses, docks, etc.
- Building of water tanks, wells, tennis courts, septic tanks, lamp posts, roads, telephone cabins, respectively.
- Creating links for drains, pipes, respectively.
- Manufacturing of precast pipes, piles, garden seats, artistically planned urns, flower pots, respectively, dust bins, fencing posts.
- Preparation of foundations, watertight floors, footpaths, respectively.
Uses of Concrete
- Concrete is widely used in the building of numerous constructions such as buildings, Bridges, Dams, and all additional Civil Engineering construction.
- Concrete is used for the structure of numerous architectural arrangements such as vaults, dams, shells, bridges, etc.
- Concrete is likewise used in prestressed construction.
Advantages of Cement and Concrete
Advantages of Cement
- The cement has worthy plasticity earlier coagulation, then can be discharged into numerous shapes and sizes of components or structures.
- There is a robust bond amongst concrete and steel bars that can be completed into reinforced concrete members or structures.
- Subsequently concrete hardening, it has high compressive strength and decent durability and can be used as a load-bearing member or structure for long-term use.
- The quantity of indigenous materials such as sand and gravel in its constituent materials is very large, in line with economical values.
- The outline is more flexible and can happen the manufacturing necessities by altering the arrangement of the ingredients.
Also Read: What Is Grade of Concrete | Concrete Mix Ratio | Type of Concrete Mix | Different Types of Concrete Grade with Concrete Mix Ratio and Compressive Strength | Uses of Different Grades of Concrete
Advantages of Concrete
- The uniform character of concrete offers rigidity as well as a look to the structure.
- It can be used for numerous drives at severalweathercircumstances such as for the construction of walls, foundation, roads, runway, pavement, water retaining structures, respectively.
- It is considerably cost-effective than steel.
- It has abundant compressive strength.
- The maintenance cost of concrete is almost zero.
- It might also be used as a soundproofing material.
- It is tough and accountable to deterioration easily.
- It can be used for the determination of the lining of tunnels.
- Its performances are a waterproofing material.
- Concrete can be effortlessly held and precast into any chosen shape.
- The constituents used for concrete are nearby obtainable.
- Its exterior is accomplished by resisting abrasion.
- It can even be sprayed on and occupied into fine cracks for maintenances by the uniting process.
- It can be pumped, and henceforth it can be placed in difficult locations also.
Disadvantages of Cement and Concrete
Disadvantages of Cement
- The cement has low tensile strength and should not be used as a tension member.
- Concrete has poor resistance to deformation, easy to crack, and has a brittle failure.
- The cement has too much weight and volume, which brings great inconvenience to construction and use.
- Cement has strong shrinkage, a complicated production process, and easy to produce quality fluctuations, and is prone to common quality problems such as cracks, ribs, corners, pockmarks, honeycombs, and exposed ribs.
Disadvantages of Concrete
- It is mandatory to offer expansion joints in situations of long structures.
- It is mandatory to offer contraction joints to escape drying shrinkage.
- These tall buildings are heavyweight addition exposed to heavy creep.
- It needs additional time for curing to advance strength.
- These have low tensile strength.
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