Table of Contents
What Is Beam?
The beam is a structural element that stands against the bending. Mainly beam carries vertical gravitational forces, but also pull the horizontal loads on it.
The beam is called a wall plate or sill plate that carries the transmits and load it to the girders, columns, or walls. It is attached with.
In the early centuries, timbers were the most preferred material to be used as a beam for this structural support purpose, now to bear the force along with carrying vertical gravitational force, now they are made up of aluminum, steel, or other such materials.
In actual means, beams are these structural materials, which bear the sheer force of the load and the bending moment.
To carry on the more tension and load, pre-stressed concrete beams are widely used nowadays in the foundation of bridges and other such humongous structures.
Several famous beams used nowadays are supported Beam, Fixed Beam, Cantilever Beam, Continuous Beam, Overhanging Beam.
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In building construction, a beam is a horizontal member spanning an opening and carrying a load that may be a brick or stone wall above the opening, in which case the beam is often called a lintel (see post-and-lintel system).
Types of Beam
5 Different types of beam are as follows.
- Simply Supported Beam.
- Cantilever Beam.
- Over Hanging Beam.
- Continuous Beam.
- Fixed Ended Beam.
What Is Column?
A compression member, i.e., column, is an important element of every reinforced concrete structure. These are used to transfer a load of superstructure to the foundation safely.
Mainly columns, struts, and pedestals are used as compression members in buildings, bridges, supporting systems of tanks, factories, and many more such structures.
A column is defined as a vertical compression member who is mainly subjected to the effective length and axial loads of which exceeds three times its least lateral dimension.
The compression member whose effective length is less than three times its least lateral dimension is called Pedestal.
The compression member who is inclined or horizontal and is subjected to axial loads is called Strut. Struts are used in trusses.
The function of columns is to transfer the load of the structure vertically downwards to transfer it to a foundation.
Apart from the wall performs the following functions also:
- It encloses building areas into different compartments and provides privacy.
- It provides safety from burglary and insects.
- It keeps the building warm in cools in summer and winter.
Types of Column
15 Different types of Column are as follows.
- Tied Column
- Spiral Column
- Composite column
- Axially Loaded Column
- Column with Uniaxial Eccentric Loading
- Column with Biaxial Eccentric Loading
- Short Column
- Long Column
- Square or Rectangular Column
- Circular column
- L-Shape Column
- T-Shape column
- Shape of Steel Column
- Shape of Composite Column
- Reinforced Concrete, Steel, timber, Brick, Block, and Stone Column.
Difference Between Beam and Column
The minimum width of the beam is 200 mm. The minimum width of a column is 200 mm, however, for earthquake resistance, it should be 300mm.
|1||Communally a horizontal member of a structure that resists transverse load is called a beam.||Communally a vertical member of a structure that resists axial/eccentric load is called a column.|
|2||The beam is carried load perpendicular to the longitudinal axis.||The column is carried load parallel to the longitudinal axis.|
|3||Beam is basically carried or resists bending and shear force.||Column is basically carried or resists compression load.|
|4||Beams shapes can be square, rectangular, T shape, I shape, H shape.||Column shape can be rectangular, circular, square, T shape, L shape, C shape, elliptical etc|
|5||Minimum width of the beam is 200 mm.||Minimum width of a column is 200 mm, however, for earthquake resistance, it should be 300mm.|
|6||Longitudinal steel in Beam is on two faces which are used to resist bending moment while the vertical loads are resisted by stirrups or inclined beam||Longitudinal steel in Column is on all faces which basically resists compression|
|7||Communally cast with slab and hence greater care is observed for its concreting and curing in case of RCC structures.||Communally cast in small batches and hence the quality of concreting as well as curing ignored in case of RCC structures.|
|8||Beam without building possible||Here, Column important part of building|