Table of Contents
Introduction of Fire Escape Staircase
Urbanization leads to the Construction of the High Rise building. It is also necessary to design high-rise buildings such that they will fulfill all the safety criteria.
It is necessary to provide a fire escape in case of emergency or fire hazard. The staircase is one of the most preferred solutions for safe emergency evacuations and fire escapes in case of emergency.
There are different types of exist that are provided to the building which are either horizontal or vertical. This existence plays a vital role during an emergency.
In this article, you will get to know all about the fire escape staircase and fire escape staircase requirements.
Fire escape staircase is widely used in high-rise buildings to permit exits to the occupants. Every structure that exists should comply with the minimum requirement.
Fire escape staircase plays a vital role in multi-story buildings as per as safety is concerned. The fire escape staircase is made mostly with Steel for fire retardant materials which match the architectural style and interior of the structure.
What Are Fire Escape Staircases?
The Fire escape staircase is a special type of emergency exist which plays an important role in safely exiting from the building during an emergency or any fire hazard.
Fire escape staircase is widely used in multi-story residential buildings for commercial buildings.
Every building should have a fire escape staircase to permit the safe escape of occupants in case of an emergency. Fire escape should be constructed with non-combustible materials.
The building should be properly designed and constructed as per the required fire safety according to the fire protection of the National Building Code of India.
Fire escape stairs are mainly governed by two main aspects which are Stability and Access.
Types of Fire Escaping Stairs
Different types of fire escaping stairs are as follows
- Drop Ladder
- Counterbalanced Stairs
- Gooseneck Ladder
1. Drop Ladder
Drop letter is one of the best fire escape equipment which is widely used in case of emergencies. These types of orders can be permanently fixed and it is safe and stable so that anyone can use them.
The drop letter should be fitted close to the window so it can be easily used during an emergency.
2. Counterbalanced Stairs
A counterbalance staircase is a common method that is widely used to protect building occupants during the period of emergency.
This type of staircase is applied to the tip of the stair flight that consists of cables and pulleys.
3. Gooseneck Ladder
It is a vertical ladder that extends from the top floor of the terrace or balcony and is used as a standard fire escape.
This type of ladder is attached to the top landing of the fire escape and extends and bends over the roofline and the bottom of this ladder should be secured to the roof system.
The Gooseneck ladder is a little bit complex and difficult to handle.
What Is the Importance of Fire Escape in the Building?
Due to urbanization, there are high-rise buildings construction is increasing. But it is necessary to construct and design the buildings as per the rules and regulations by considering all the safety provisions of the code of practice for the fire safety of Buildings.
The emergency exit routes are very important which will provide a clear and safe way to escape from the building during a crisis or emergency.
The exit routes can be provided in the form of Doors are staircases that will help to escape from the building.
Exterior Fire Escape Stairs Code
The design and dimensions of the fire escape staircase are governed by the Indian Standard Code of Practice for Fire Safety of the Building.
This code describes the fire escape staircase requirements and Fire stair dimensions. The material which is used in the exit routes should be fire-resistant and free from any type of obstructions so that the occupant can easily escape through it.
Fire Escape Staircase Regulations
There are various regulations of fire escape staircase which are as follows:
- The High rise buildings should have a minimum of two staircases and a fire escape and they should be connected to the public areas and the common areas on the floors or ground.
- The route towards the fire escape staircase should be free from any type of obstruction.
- The fire escape staircase shall not be taken into consideration while calculating the number of staircases for the building.
- The entrance which is provided to the fire escape shall be separate and removed from the internal staircase.
- The door which leads a way toward the fire escape staircase should be made from fire-resistant material.
- The fire escape staircase should have handrails of height not less than 1 meter.
- The fire escape staircase should be located such that it should have one side of the external wall which has a large opening for the exit.
- The spiral fire escape staircase should not be less than 1.5 meters in diameter and should have adequate headroom.
- All the fire escape staircases should be directly connected to the ground.
- The fire escape staircase should have a straight flight, not less than 25 meters in width, and 25 cm treads and risers not more than 19 cm.
- The use of a spiral staircase should be limited to low occupant load and a building height of 9 meters.
- The main staircase and the fire escape staircase shall be continuous from the ground floor to the terrace level.
What Are the Fire Staircase Requirements?
There are different types of fire staircase requirements which are as follows:
- The surface of the fire step should be slip resistant under all conditions.
- The landing of the fire staircase should be a minimum length of 900 mm.
- The landing of fire stairs should be designed properly at an appropriate interval.
- The handles of the fire staircase should be accessible from both sides.
- The distance between the handrail and the adjacent wall surface should be 50-60 mm minimum.
Fire Stair Dimensions
Fire stair should be designed as per the standard dimensions are as follows:
- The length of the fire staircase should be a minimum of 900mm in length.
- The width of the fire escape staircase should not be less than 75 cm.
- The height of the fire escape staircase riser should not be more than 19 cm.
Fire Escape Staircase Material
The fire escape staircase is made up of the different types of materials which are as follows:
- Stainless Steel
- Galvanized Steel