What is Ferrocement?
Ferrocement is a substance of wire meshes & cement mortar. It was 1st developed by P.L.Nervi, an Italian architect in 1940. This material has obtained widespread application in construction during the last 20 years.
Ferrocement is a versatile sort of composite substance manufactured from OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) & layers of steel wire mesh & bijou diameter steel bars tightly bound altogether to generate a stiff structural form.
It is additionally termed as ‘ferro concrete’ or ‘reinforced concrete. Wire mesh is employed as an essential reinforcement material. The wire mesh passes on tensile strength & ductility to the substance while the mortar generates the brawn against cracking.
Properties of Ferrocement
It’s a kind of sleek reinforced concrete construction, during which huge quantity of continuous bijou diameter wire meshes homogeneously throughout the cross section. Mesh are manufactured of metal or identical material.
Instead of concrete Portland cement mortar is employed. Strength depends on two factors, viz., quality of sand/cement mortar mix & quantity of reinforcing materials used. It is basically a versatile kind of reinforced concrete & possesses high stiffness & tensile brawn.
It ameliorates the punching shear resistance & influence. It is light- weight & undergoes massive deformation earlier. It is inexpensive & significantly durable. A low w/c ratio generates the non-penetrable structures.
Materials Required for Making Ferrocement
- Fine Aggregate
- Mortar Mix
- Reinforcing mesh
- Skeletal Steel
1. Cement Mortar Mix
Generally, the principal constituents of ferrocement are Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) & Fine Aggregate Matrix In ferrocement, fine sand ought not to be utilized. To boost the workability, stability & brawn & likewise to diminish permeability, plasticizers & admixtures are added to ameliorate the balance.
The particle size of sand ought not to be greater than 2.36 millimeters (can make the mortar porous) & less than 1.18 millimeters (requires excess water to the non-penetrable structure). Fine Aggregate (Sand) occupies 60- 75% mortar volume
The matrix makes up 95% of the composite & it’s characteristics depends on it.
2. Blend Proportions
Sand: Cement ratio = 1.5:2.5 (by mass)
Water: Cement ratio = 0.35:0.60 (by mass)
In ferrocement, 2 kinds of reinforcements are:-
- Skeleton Steel
- Steel Wire Mesh
3.1 Skeleton Steel
Skeleton steel possesses large-diameter (about 3 to 8 millimeters) bars ranging from 75mm to 100mm & it is supplied as welded wire fabric or tied-reinforcement. It’s primary function is to carry the wire mesh within the shape of the structure.
Places where higher stresses may occur, mild steel bars are utilized. Employed to impart structural brawn in boats, barges etc Reinforcement ought to be dust-free, rust-free & free from other impurities
3.2 Steel Wire Mesh
In wire mesh, 6-20 millimeters center to center gapping is supplied & it is usually manufactured from galvanized wire (0.5-1.5 millimeters diameter). The wire mesh is available as welded wire mesh or square woven wire mesh or mesh of expanded metal etc.
The yield strength of plain wires utilized in fabric ought not be over 415 MPa & 500 MPa for deformed wires. The metal content may range between 300-500 kg / m3 of mortar. Welded wire mesh has hexagonal or rectangular apertures
Expanded metal lath is additionally used
4. Construction Process
The construction process of ferrocement is split into the subsequent 4 phases as given below:-
- Fabricating the skeletal framing system.
- Applying rods and meshes.
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5. Ferrocement Manufacturing Process
5.1. Hand Plastering
In this method, control thickness is strenuous & least thickness is a stream that is 2cms.
5.2. Semi Mechanized Process
This system additionally is referred to as semi-mechanized since the mould may be rolled to aid the dynamic to mortars.
The gun-running processes are often adapted to utilize the mortar to the wire mesh system.
5.4. By Centrifuging
Centrifuging courses are adopted for the development of rigid cylindrical units.
5.5. Uses of Ferrocements in Construction
- Rural Energy.
- Anticorrosive Membrane Treatment.
- Boats, fishing vessels, barges, cargo tugs, catamarans, yachts & flotation buoys.
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Uses of Ferrocement
- Marine Uses: Ferrocement is employed for developing boats, finishing vessels, barrages, cargoes, tugs, docks, floating buoys & water or fuel tanks.
- Water Supply & Sanitation Uses: It is employed for Water tanks, sedimentation tanks, well casings, septic tanks & swimming pools linings. g. Hirakud dam
- Agricultural Uses: Again, it is utilized for grain Storage bins, silos, water tanks, pipes, canal linings for underground pits, shells & poultry farms & irrigation channels.
- Housing Uses: Further, it is utilized for Mosque domes, shelters, sheds, domed structures, precast housing elements, wall panels, sandwich panels, hollow core slabs, permanent from work & corrugated roofing sheets water cisterns & repair and renovation of existing houses, community centers, wall panels, etc.
- Rural Energy Uses: It is again employed for Biogas digesters, biogas holders, incinerators & panels for solar power collectors.
- Permanents Framework Uses: Also utilized for Reinforced or prestressed concrete & for columns, beams, slabs, etc.
- Miscellaneous Uses: Moreover, it is also utilized for Mobile homes, kiosks, wind tunnels, silos & cans.
- Modern Uses: Here, the modern use of ferrocement are as follows.
- Residential & Public Buildings.
- Industrial Structures.
- Agricultural structures.
- Transportation Structures.
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Advantages & Disadvantages of Ferrocement
Advantages of Ferrocement
Here, the pros of ferrocement are as follows.
- Raw materials are effortlessly obtainable in most countries.
- Can be fabricated into any specific shape & thickness.
- Minimum labour skill required.
- Effortless construction, light-weight & lengthy lifetime with fine durability.
- Least material cost & affordable maintenance cost.
- Better resistance against earthquake, fire & corrosion.
- It can be moldable & of one-piece construction.
- They possesses loftier tensile strength i.e. high ductility & are resistant to crack.
- It is ideal for special structures like shells & roofs, water tanks, etc because it can be fabricated in any desired shape.
- For precast merchandise, it’s an ideal substance.
- It’s an ideal material for precast merchandise.
- They are environmentally friendly.
- Possesses ability to undergo huge deflection
- Improved impact resistance & sturdiness
- Good impermeability
- Low strength to weight ratio
- Capital & native convention of construction procedure.
- Doesn’t need ponderous plant or machinery.
Disadvantages of Ferrocement
Here, the cons of ferrocement are as follows.
- Structures generated from it can be punctured by hitting with pointed objects or forceful collision i.e. vulnerable to sharp objects & has low shear strength.
- Corrosion of reinforcing materials occurs due to the unfinished coverage of metal by mortar.
- It is strenuous to fasten to Ferrocement with bolts, screws, welding & nails etc.
- Huge no of labors required & hence expensive.
- Cost of semi-skilled & unskilled labors are lofty.
- Tying & fastening of rods & mesh is tedious & time consuming.
- It can impair in tyrannical environments. In seawater, reinforcing materials may get corroded, if the thickness of the canopy isn’t sufficient.
- The special core is essential to make sure that steel cover reinforcement is sufficient.
- Rust can pop up on reinforcement if not canopied sufficiently by mortar.
- It is strenuous to perform welding etc properly.